Understanding the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) for effective therapy
By parsing the unique classes and subclasses of tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) that exist within a patient’s tumor, the ability to predict and guide immunotherapeutic responsiveness will improve, and new therapeutic targets will be revealed.
Enhancement of Antitumor Immunity by CTLA-4 Blockade
In vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors, and this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells, suggesting that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.
Visualizing regulatory T cell control of autoimmune responses in nonobese diabetic mice
Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy is used to analyze lymph node priming of diabetogenic T cells and to delineate the mechanisms of Treg cell control of autoimmunity in vivo, supporting the idea that dendritic cells are central to T Reg cell function in vivo.
Dissecting the Tumor Myeloid Compartment Reveals Rare Activating Antigen-Presenting Cells Critical for T Cell Immunity.
CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation
It is shown here that the presence of low levels of B7-2 on freshly explanted T cells can partially inhibit T cell proliferation, and this inhibition is mediated by interactions with CTLA-4, which strongly suggests that the outcome of T cell antigen receptor stimulation is regulated by CD28 costimulatory signals, as well as inhibitory signals derived from CTla-4.
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis
It is shown that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues, and this dissociated regulation can be tuned by nutrient intake and central circadian rhythms.
Dendritic cells in cancer immunology and immunotherapy
- S. Wculek, F. J. Cueto, Adriana Mujal, I. Melero, M. Krummel, D. Sancho
- Biology, MedicineNature reviews. Immunology
- 29 August 2019
How different DC subsets influence immunity and tolerance in cancer settings is outlined and the implications for both established cancer treatments and novel immunotherapy strategies are discussed.
Repair and regeneration of the respiratory system: complexity, plasticity, and mechanisms of lung stem cell function.
A natural killer–dendritic cell axis defines checkpoint therapy–responsive tumor microenvironments
The studies reveal that innate immune SDCs and NK cells cluster together as an excellent prognostic tool for T cell–directed immunotherapy and that these innate cells are necessary for enhanced T cell tumor responses, suggesting this axis as a target for new therapies.
Deletional Tolerance Mediated by Extrathymic Aire-Expressing Cells
It is proposed that such a secondary network of self-antigen–expressing stromal cells may help reinforce immune tolerance by preventing the maturation of autoreactive T cells that escape thymic negative selection.