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Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis.
- M. Kramer
- Bulletin of the World Health Organization
There is a need for future research on the effect of maternal work, prenatal care, and certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies on intrauterine growth, and theeffect of genital tract infection, prenatal Care, maternal employment, stress and anxiety on prematurity. Expand
Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus.
The authors' experimental intervention increased the duration and degree (exclusivity) of breastfeeding and decreased the risk of gastrointestinal tract infection and atopic eczema in the first year of life. Expand
Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding.
Neither the trials nor the observational studies suggest that infants who continue to be exclusively breastfed for six months show deficits in weight or length gain, although larger sample sizes would be required to rule out modest differences in risk of undernutrition. Expand
The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review.
The data are conflicting with respect to iron status but suggest that, at least in developing-country settings, where iron stores of newborn infants may be suboptimal, exclusive breastfeeding without iron supplementation through 6 months of age may compromise hematologic status. Expand
Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
- S. Cnattingius, R. Bergström, L. Lipworth, M. Kramer
- The New England journal of medicine
- 15 January 1998
Higher maternal weight before pregnancy increases the risk of late fetal death, although it protects against the delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. Expand
A new and improved population-based Canadian reference for birth weight for gestational age.
This new sex-specific, population-based reference should improve clinical assessment of growth in individual newborns, population -based surveillance of geographic and temporal trends in birth weight for gestational age, and evaluation of clinical or public health interventions to enhance fetal growth. Expand
Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial.
These results, based on the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation, provide strong evidence that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development. Expand
Socio-economic disparities in pregnancy outcome: why do the poor fare so poorly?
Research that identifies and quantifies the causal pathways and mechanisms whereby social disadvantage leads to higher risks of IUGR and preterm birth may eventually help to reduce current disparities and improve pregnancy outcome across the entire socio-economic spectrum. Expand
Intrauterine growth and gestational duration determinants.
- M. Kramer
- 1 October 1987
A critical assessment and meta-analysis of 895 studies concerning 43 potential determinants of intrauterine growth or gestational duration published between 1970 and 1984 finds that factors with well-established direct causal impacts are identified, and their relative importance is indicated for "typical" developing and developed country settings. Expand
The epidemiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes: an overview.
- M. Kramer
- The Journal of nutrition
- 1 May 2003
Several developed countries have reported a temporal increase in fetal growth in infants born at term, a reduction in stillbirth rates and prevention of neural tube defects, more progress is required, however, in understanding the etiology and Prevention of preterm birth. Expand