• Publications
  • Influence
An analysis of 5'-noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs.
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nucleic acids research
  • 26 October 1987
5'-Noncoding sequences have been compiled from 699 vertebrate mRNAs. (GCC) GCCA/GCCATGG emerges as the consensus sequence for initiation of translation in vertebrates. The most highly conservedExpand
The scanning model for translation: an update
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of cell biology
  • 1 February 1989
The small (40S) subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes is believed to bind initially at the capped 5'-end of messenger RNA and then migrate, stopping at the first AUG codon in a favorable context forExpand
Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Cell
  • 31 January 1986
By analyzing the effects of single base substitutions around the ATG initiator codon in a cloned preproinsulin gene, I have identified ACCATGG as the optimal sequence for initiation by eukaryoticExpand
Structural features in eukaryotic mRNAs that modulate the initiation of translation.
  • M. Kozak
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The Journal of biological chemistry
  • 25 October 1991
In higher eukaryotes, translation is modulated at the level of initiation by five aspects of mRNA structure: (i) the m7G cap; (ii) the primary sequence or context surrounding the AUG codon; (iii) theExpand
Pushing the limits of the scanning mechanism for initiation of translation
  • M. Kozak
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Gene
  • 16 October 2002
TLDR
Examples support the idea that 5′ leader sequences are sometimes structured deliberately in a way that constrains scanning in order to prevent harmful overproduction of potent regulatory proteins. Expand
Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Gene
  • 8 July 1999
TLDR
The binding of Met-tRNA to ribosomes is mediated by a GTP-binding protein in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but the more complex structure of the eukARYotic factor (eIF-2) and its association with other proteins underlie some aspects of initiation unique to eUKaryotes. Expand
An analysis of vertebrate mRNA sequences: intimations of translational control
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of cell biology
  • 2 November 1991
Five structural features in mRNAs have been found to contribute to the fidelity and efficiency of initiation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Scrutiny of vertebrate cDNA sequences in light of these criteriaExpand
Compilation and analysis of sequences upstream from the translational start site in eukaryotic mRNAs.
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nucleic acids research
  • 25 January 1984
TLDR
The sequence CCAGCCAUG (G) thus emerges as a consensus sequence for eukaryotic initiation sites, and the extent to which the ribosome binding site in a given mRNA matches the -1 to -5 consensus sequence varies. Expand
Effects of intercistronic length on the efficiency of reinitiation by eucaryotic ribosomes.
  • M. Kozak
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Molecular and cellular biology
  • 1 October 1987
TLDR
When the upstream "minicistron" terminated 79 nucleotides before the preproinsulin start site, the synthesis of proinsulin was as efficient as if there were no upstream AUG codons, which is somewhat surprising inasmuch as bacterial ribosomes reinitiate less efficiently as the intercistronic gap is widened. Expand
Regulation of translation via mRNA structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • M. Kozak
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Gene
  • 21 November 2005
TLDR
The scanning model provides a framework for understanding how small open reading frames near the 5' end of the mRNA can down-regulate translation and how this constraint is sometimes abrogated by changing the structure of the RNA, sometimes with clinical consequences. Expand
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