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TARGET ARTICLE: Toward a Conceptualization of Optimal Self-Esteem
In this article, I present a theoretical perspective on the nature of "optimal" self-esteem. One of my major goals is to show that optimal and high self-esteem are different from each other. High
Measuring self-esteem in context: the importance of stability of self-esteem in psychological functioning.
  • M. Kernis
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality
  • 1 December 2005
This article reports on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning and results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.
Untangling the links between narcissism and self‐esteem: A theoretical and empirical review.
The links among narcissism, explicit (deliberate, controllable) self-esteem, and implicit (automatic, uncontrollable) self-esteem are unclear despite numerous attempts to illuminate these links. Some
Stability and level of self-esteem as predictors of anger arousal and hostility.
Results revealed the predicted pattern for the tendency to experience anger and a "motor" component of hostility.
There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: the importance of stability of self-esteem.
This data indicates that among high self-esteem individuals, instability was associated with acceptance and positive emotions following positive feedback but to rejection and defensiveness following negative feedback, while among low self- esteem individuals, stability was unrelated to reactions to positive feedback, but was related to lessdefensiveness and greater acceptance of negative feedback.
Mindfulness as a means of reducing aggressive behavior: dispositional and situational evidence.
Two studies found that dispositional mindfulness correlated negatively with self-reported aggressiveness and hostile attribution bias, and participants made mindful before receiving social rejection feedback displayed less-aggressive behavior than did rejected participants not made mindful.
Secure versus fragile high self-esteem as a predictor of verbal defensiveness: converging findings across three different markers.
Discussion centers on why the possession of well-anchored and secure high self-esteem obviates defensiveness directed toward enhancing, maintaining, or bolstering feelings of self-worth.
Multiple Facets of Self-Esteem and their Relations to Depressive Symptoms
The authors examined whether stability and level of self-esteem interact with daily hassles in predicting severity of depressive symptoms. As predicted, Time 2 depression scores (with Time 1 scores