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Immune pathways and defence mechanisms in honey bees Apis mellifera
It is suggested that an implied reduction in immune flexibility in bees reflects either the strength of social barriers to disease, or a tendency for bees to be attacked by a limited set of highly coevolved pathogens. Expand
Biological mediators of insect immunity.
A component of insect immune responses to bacteria is the synthesis by fat body and hemocytes of a variety of antibacterial proteins and peptides, which are secreted into the hemolymph. Expand
Innate immune responses of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta
Current research is focused on the proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) – a reaction implicated in melanotic encapsulation, wound healing, and protein cross‐linking, and three proPO‐activating proteinases, each of which requires serine proteinase homologs as a cofactor for generating active phenol oxidase. Expand
Evolutionary Dynamics of Immune-Related Genes and Pathways in Disease-Vector Mosquitoes
Analysis of immune signaling pathways and response modules reveals both conservative and rapidly evolving features associated with different functional gene categories and particular aspects of immune reactions, suggesting how innate immunity may have evolved. Expand
RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.
Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity and that gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. Expand
Laccase 2 is the phenoloxidase gene required for beetle cuticle tanning.
The hypothesis that two isoforms of laccase 2 generated by alternative splicing catalyze larval, pupal, and adult cuticle tanning in Tribolium is supported. Expand
The clip-domain family of serine proteinases in arthropods.
  • H. Jiang, M. Kanost
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Insect biochemistry and molecular biology
  • 1 February 2000
The Tribolium chitin synthase genes TcCHS1 and TcCHS2 are specialized for synthesis of epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix
Functional analysis of the two chitin synthase genes, TcCHS1 and TcCHS2, in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, revealed unique and complementary roles for each gene. TcCHS1‐specific RNAExpand
Serine proteases and their homologs in the Drosophila melanogaster genome: an initial analysis of sequence conservation and phylogenetic relationships.
A framework of information about evolutionary relationships among the Drosophila SPs and SPHs is established, which may facilitate research on these proteins as well as homologous molecules from other invertebrate species. Expand
Pro-phenol oxidase activating proteinase from an insect, Manduca sexta: a bacteria-inducible protein similar to Drosophila easter.
Sequence data and 3H-diisopropyl fluorphosphate labeling results suggest that the same PAP exists in hemolymph and cuticle, suggesting that proPO-activating enzyme may exist as a protein complex, one component of which is PAP. Expand