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A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale.
  • M. Johns
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Sleep
  • 1 November 1991
The development and use of a new scale, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), is described. This is a simple, self-administered questionnaire which is shown to provide a measurement of the subject's
Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
  • M. Johns
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Sleep
  • 1 July 1992
TLDR
Factor analysis of item scores showed that the ESS had only one factor for 104 medical students and for 150 patients with various sleep disorders, and the questionnaire had a high level of internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha.
Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
TLDR
ESS scores significantly distinguished patients with primary snoring from those with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and ESS scores increased with the severity of OSAS.
Sensitivity and specificity of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test and the Epworth sleepiness scale: Failure of the MSLT as a gold standard
  • M. Johns
  • Psychology
    Journal of sleep research
  • 1 March 2000
TLDR
Three of the most commonly used tests: the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) give results that are significantly correlated in a statistical sense, but are not closely related.
Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits of Australian workers.
TLDR
Excessive daytime sleepiness in the general community is a newly recognized problem about which there is little standardized information and was related significantly but weakly to sleep-disordered breathing, the presence of insomnia, and reduced time spent in bed (insufficient sleep).
The St. Mary's Hospital sleep questionnaire: a study of reliability.
TLDR
The St. Mary's (or SMH) Sleep Questionnaire is put forward as an instrument that is a systematic inquiry into the subject's experience of sleep and that is composed of items of demonstrable reliability.
Sleepiness in different situations measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
TLDR
The results of nonparametric ANOVA, Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon's t tests, item and factor analysis suggest that individual measurements of SP involve three components of variation in addition to short-term changes over periods of hours or days.
Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale: validation for use in Brazil.
TLDR
The results of the present study demonstrate that the ESS-BR is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of daytime sleepiness, equivalent to its original version when applied to individuals who speak Brazilian Portuguese.
Monitoring eye and eyelid movements by infrared reflectance oculography to measure drowsiness in drivers
TLDR
A new system of infrared (IR) reflectance oculography is described that uses transducers attached to a glasses frame to measure drivers' drowsiness continuously on a new scale (JDS).
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