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Metabolic gene polymorphism frequencies in control populations.
Using the International Project on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database containing information on over 15,000 control (noncancer) subjects, the allele and genotype frequencies for many of the more commonly studied metabolic genes in the human population were determined. Expand
Influence of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms on drug therapies: pharmacogenetic, pharmacoepigenetic and clinical aspects.
It is concluded that the pharmacogenetic knowledge regarding CYP polymorphism now developed to a stage where it can be implemented in drug development and in clinical routine for specific drug treatments, thereby improving the drug response and reducing costs for drug treatment. Expand
Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms.
Several molecular mechanisms whereby n-3 fatty acids may modify the carcinogenic process have been proposed, and influences on transcription factor activity, gene expression, and signal transduction pathways; alteration of estrogen metabolism; increased or decreased production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species; and mechanisms involving insulin sensitivity and membrane fluidity are proposed. Expand
A common novel CYP2C19 gene variant causes ultrarapid drug metabolism relevant for the drug response to proton pump inhibitors and antidepressants
Many drugs, including proton pump inhibitors and certain antidepressants, are metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme. A significant portion of extensive metabolizers do notExpand
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6): clinical consequences, evolutionary aspects and functional diversity
Predictive CYP2D6 genotyping is estimated by the author to be beneficial for treatment of about 30–40% of CYP 2D6 drug substrates, that is, for about 7–10% of all drugs clinically used, although prospective clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the exact benefit of drug selection and dosage. Expand
Genetic analysis of the Chinese cytochrome P4502D locus: characterization of variant CYP2D6 genes present in subjects with diminished capacity for debrisoquine hydroxylation.
Important interethnic differences exist in the structure of the CYP2D locus, and they suggest that the frequent distribution of the C188-->T mutation among the CYp2D6Ch genes explains the lower capacity among Chinese to metabolize drugs that are substrates of CYP 2D6, such as antidepressants and neuroleptic agents. Expand
Polymorphic human cytochrome P450 enzymes: an opportunity for individualized drug treatment.
Approximately 40% of human P450-dependent drug metabolism is carried out by polymorphic enzymes, which can cause abolished, quantitatively or qualitatively altered or enhanced drug metabolism. TheExpand
Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 is increased in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
It is concluded that hepatic CYP2E1 is increased in patients with NASH compared with normal livers, suggesting that the pathogenetic mechanisms for NASH may be similar and, like alcoholic steatohepatitis, may involve induction of CYP 2E1. Expand
Pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 and its applications in drug therapy: the past, present and future.
It is anticipated that, in the future, genotyping could be used to personalize drug treatment for vast numbers of subjects, decreasing the cost of drug treatment and increasing the efficacy of drugs and health in general. Expand
Cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics and cancer
The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are key enzymes in cancer formation and cancer treatment. They mediate the metabolic activation of numerous precarcinogens and participate in the inactivation andExpand