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Impact of Event Scale: A Measure of Subjective Stress
A scale of current subjective distress, related to a specific event, was based on a list of items composed of commonly reported experiences of intrusion and avoidance, and responses indicated that the scale had a useful degree of significance and homogeneity.
Prolonged Grief Disorder: Psychometric Validation of Criteria Proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11
The psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is tested to enhance the detection and care of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction.
Stress response syndromes
- M. Horowitz
The signs and symptoms of response to a stressful life event are expressed in two predominant phases: the intrusive state, characterized by unbidden ideas and feelings and even compulsive actions,…
Impact of Event Scale: psychometric properties.
- E. Sundin, M. Horowitz
- Psychology, MedicineThe British journal of psychiatry : the journal…
- 1 March 2002
The results indicated that the IES's two-factor structure is stable over different types of events, that it can discriminate between stress reactions at different times after the event, and that it has convergent validity with observer-diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder.
Stress-response syndromes: a review of posttraumatic and adjustment disorders.
- M. Horowitz
- PsychologyHospital & community psychiatry
- 1 March 1986
In this review of stress-response syndromes, the author outlines those phases, discusses the DSM-III diagnoses for stress- response disorders, and considers the mutual etiologic effects of stressful life events, psychiatric Disorders, and preexisting conflicts or functional deficits.
Diagnostic criteria for complicated grief disorder.
- M. Horowitz, B. Siegel, A. Holen, G. Bonanno, C. Milbrath, C. Stinson
- Psychology, MedicineThe American journal of psychiatry
- 1 July 1997
A new diagnosis of complicated grief disorder may be indicated, which would include the current experience of intense intrusive thoughts, pangs of severe emotion, distressing yearnings, and maladaptive levels of loss of interest in personal activities.
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR.
- M. Horowitz
- PsychologyAmerican journal of psychotherapy
Impact of Event Scale: a cross-validation study and some empirical evidence supporting a conceptual model of stress response syndromes.
A cross-validational study on the Impact of Event Scale confirmed the scale's relevance, internal consistency, and sensitivity, and data are interpreted as consistent with a clinically derived theoretical model of the pattern of response to serious life events.
Horowitz’s Impact of Event Scale Evaluation of 20 Years of Use
A meta-analysis of 66 studies that used Horowitz's IES to examine the psychological impact of a major life event indicated that type of event is a strong predictor of levels of intrusive and avoidant symptoms after a traumatic event.