It is found that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction from non-equilibrium states, owing to finite size effects and quantum coherences, which implies that thermodynamical transitions are generically irreversible at this scale.Expand

It is shown that if a mixed state can be distilled to the singlet form it must violate partial transposition criterion [A. Peres, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1413 (1996)]. It implies that there are two… Expand

Here, it is found that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints.Expand

All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say that what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in the laboratory. But the essence of quantum formalism— entanglement,… Expand

We numerically investigate the statement that local random quantum circuits acting on n qubits composed of polynomially many nearest-neighbor two-qubit gates form an approximate unitary… Expand

A quantum state shared between many distant locations is considered, and a quantum information processing primitive, state merging, that optimally merges the state into one location is defined, finding that quantum information can be negative.Expand

It is shown that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sub linear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.Expand