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Genetic analyses from ancient DNA.
TLDR
The precautions and criteria necessary to ascertain to the greatest extent possible that results represent authentic ancient DNA sequences are discussed, which highlight some significant results and areas of promising future research.
DNA sequences from multiple amplifications reveal artifacts induced by cytosine deamination in ancient DNA.
TLDR
It is shown that DNA molecules amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from animal bones and teeth that vary in age between 25 000 and over 50 000 years carry C-->T and G-->A substitutions, which are due to the occurrence of modified deoxycytidine residues in the template DNA.
Ancient DNA extraction from bones and teeth
TLDR
The purification step removes most of the various types of PCR inhibitors present in ancient bone samples, thereby optimizing the amount of ancient DNA available for subsequent enzymatic manipulation, such as PCR amplification.
No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans
TLDR
The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA, and in combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Ne andertals to early modern human humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.
Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary
TLDR
Molecular dating of the mtDNA divergence times suggests a rapid radiation of bears in both the Old and New Worlds around 5 million years ago, at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, which coincides with major global changes, such as the Messinian crisis and the first opening of the Bering Strait, and suggests a global influence of such events on species radiations.
Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory
TLDR
A 5,000-year transect of human genomes sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields are analysed, suggesting genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability.
Assessing ancient DNA studies.
Comparison and optimization of ancient DNA extraction.
TLDR
This optimized method uses a buffer consisting solely of EDTA and proteinase K for bone digestion and binding DNA to silica via guanidinium thiocyanate for DNA purification, and outperforms all other methods in terms of DNA yields as measured using quantitative PCR.
Molecular coproscopy: dung and diet of the extinct ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis.
DNA from excrements can be amplified by means of the polymerase chain reaction. However, this has not been possible with ancient feces. Cross-links between reducing sugars and amino groups were shown
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