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Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action.
It is reported that metformin activates AMPK in hepatocytes; as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed.
Discovery of TBC1D1 as an Insulin-, AICAR-, and Contraction-stimulated Signaling Nexus in Mouse Skeletal Muscle*
A dissociation between AS160 protein expression and apparent AS160 PAS phosphorylation among soleus, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus muscles is discovered and is identified as the AS160 paralog TBC1D1, an obesity candidate gene regulating GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
- K. Stanford, R. Middelbeek, L. Goodyear
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of clinical investigation
- 2 January 2013
A previously under-appreciated role for BAT in glucose metabolism is revealed, demonstrating that BAT-derived IL-6 is required for the profound effects of BAT transplantation on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
Restoring Systemic GDF11 Levels Reverses Age-Related Dysfunction in Mouse Skeletal Muscle
It is demonstrated that the circulating protein growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a rejuvenating factor for skeletal muscle, and systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction.
AS160 Regulates Insulin- and Contraction-stimulated Glucose Uptake in Mouse Skeletal Muscle*
- H. F. Kramer, C. A. Witczak, E. Taylor, N. Fujii, M. Hirshman, L. Goodyear
- BiologyJournal of Biological Chemistry
- 20 October 2006
The data suggest that AS160 regulates both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose metabolism in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and that the effects of mutant AS160 on the actions of insulin and contraction are not identical.
Evidence for 5′AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Mediation of the Effect of Muscle Contraction on Glucose Transport
Data suggest that AICAR and contraction stimulate glucose transport by a similar insulin-independent signaling mechanism and are consistent with the hypothesis that AMPK is involved in exercise-stimulated glucose uptake.
Distinct Signals Regulate AS160 Phosphorylation in Response to Insulin, AICAR, and Contraction in Mouse Skeletal Muscle
AS160 may be a point of convergence linking insulin, contraction, and AICAR signaling, while Akt and AMPK α2 activities are essential for AS160 phosphorylation by insulin and A ICAR, respectively, neither kinase is indispensable for the entire effects of contraction on AS160osphorylation.
Highly Efficient, Functional Engraftment of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Dystrophic Muscles
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes during exercise.
People with type 2 diabetes have normal exercise-induced AMPK alpha2 activity and normal expression of the alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 isoforms and Pharmacological activation of AMPK may be an attractive target for the treatment of type 2abetes.
Nitric oxide increases glucose uptake through a mechanism that is distinct from the insulin and contraction pathways in rat skeletal muscle.
No stimulates glucose uptake through a mechanism that is distinct from both the insulin and contraction signaling pathways, suggesting that NO is a critical mediator of insulin- and/or contraction-stimulated transport.