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Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women's ascent up the organizational ladder.
- M. Heilman
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations… Expand
Gender stereotypes and workplace bias
- M. Heilman
Abstract This paper focuses on the workplace consequences of both descriptive gender stereotypes (designating what women and men are like) and prescriptive gender stereotypes (designating what women… Expand
Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.
- M. Heilman, Aaron S. Wallen, D. Fuchs, Melinda M. Tamkins
- Psychology, Medicine
- The Journal of applied psychology
- 1 June 2004
A total of 242 subjects participated in 3 experimental studies investigating reactions to a woman's success in a male gender-typed job. Results strongly supported the authors' hypotheses, indicating… Expand
Why are women penalized for success at male tasks?: the implied communality deficit.
In 3 experimental studies, the authors tested the idea that penalties women incur for success in traditionally male areas arise from a perceived deficit in nurturing and socially sensitive communal… Expand
Same behavior, different consequences: reactions to men's and women's altruistic citizenship behavior.
In 2 experimental studies, the authors hypothesized that the performance of altruistic citizenship behavior in a work setting would enhance the favorability of men's (but not women's) evaluations and… Expand
Has anything changed? Current characterizations of men, women, and managers.
Replication et extension de la recherche de Schein (1973) sur la description des hommes, des femmes, en tant que tels ou comme managers ou managers a succes, par 268 managers utilisant un inventaire… Expand
When fit is fundamental: performance evaluations and promotions of upper-level female and male managers.
Using archival organizational data, the authors examined relationships of gender and type of position (i.e., line or staff) to performance evaluations of 448 upper-level managers, and relationships… Expand
When beauty is beastly: The effects of appearance and sex on evaluations of job applicants for managerial and nonmanagerial jobs.
Abstract To explore the idea that the career opportunities of attractive women are hindered by their appearance an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of both appearance and sex on the… Expand
Motherhood: a potential source of bias in employment decisions.
Results of 2 experimental studies in which job incumbents were said to be applying for promotions to traditionally male positions demonstrated bias against mothers in competence expectations and in… Expand