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Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women's ascent up the organizational ladder.
- M. Heilman
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations…
Gender stereotypes and workplace bias
- M. Heilman
Abstract This paper focuses on the workplace consequences of both descriptive gender stereotypes (designating what women and men are like) and prescriptive gender stereotypes (designating what women…
Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.
- M. Heilman, A. Wallen, D. Fuchs, Melinda M. Tamkins
- Psychology, MedicineThe Journal of applied psychology
- 1 June 2004
Results strongly supported the idea that gender stereotypes can prompt bias in evaluative judgments of women even when these women have proved themselves to be successful and demonstrated their competence.
Why are women penalized for success at male tasks?: the implied communality deficit.
Results indicated that the negativity directed at successful female managers--in ratings of likability, interpersonal hostility, and boss desirability--was mitigated when there was indication that they were communal.
Same behavior, different consequences: reactions to men's and women's altruistic citizenship behavior.
Results suggest that gender-stereotypic prescriptions regarding how men and women should behave result in different evaluative reactions to the same altruistic behavior, depending on the performer's sex.
Has anything changed? Current characterizations of men, women, and managers.
Replication et extension de la recherche de Schein (1973) sur la description des hommes, des femmes, en tant que tels ou comme managers ou managers a succes, par 268 managers utilisant un inventaire…
When fit is fundamental: performance evaluations and promotions of upper-level female and male managers.
Promoted women had received higher performance ratings than promoted men and performance ratings were more strongly related to promotions for women than men, suggesting that women were held to stricter standards for promotion.
Entrepreneurship as a solution: The allure of self-employment for women and minorities
Abstract In this paper, we discuss the experiences that women and minorities encounter in organizational settings that result in frustration and discontent with corporate life and their opportunities…
When beauty is beastly: The effects of appearance and sex on evaluations of job applicants for managerial and nonmanagerial jobs.
Abstract To explore the idea that the career opportunities of attractive women are hindered by their appearance an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of both appearance and sex on the…