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Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research
This article is based on a consensus conference, which took place in Certosa di Pontignano, Siena (Italy) on March 7-9, 2008, intended to update the previous safety guidelines for the application ofExpand
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Depression of motor cortex excitability by low‐frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation
We studied the effects of low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on motor cortex excitability in humans. TMS at 0.1 Hz for 1 hour did not change cortical excitability. Stimulation atExpand
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Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application. Report of an IFCN committee.
P.M. Rossini (Chairman) (Rome, Baly), A.T. Barker (Sheffield, UK), A. Berardelli (Rome, Italy), M.D. Caramia (Rome, Italy), G. Caruso (Naples, Italy), R.Q. Cracco (Brooklyn, NY;, USA), M.R.Expand
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What is the Bereitschaftspotential?
Since discovery of the slow negative electroencephalographic (EEG) activity preceding self-initiated movement by Kornhuber and Deecke [Kornhuber HH, Deecke L. Hirnpotentialänderungen beiExpand
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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Primer
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for noninvasive stimulation of the human brain. Stimulation is produced by generating a brief, high-intensity magnetic field by passing a briefExpand
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Rapid plasticity of human cortical movement representation induced by practice.
The process of acquiring motor skills through the sustained performance of complex movements is associated with neural plasticity. However, it is unknown whether even simple movements, repeated overExpand
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Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated
These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on “Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routineExpand
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Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills.
1. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to study the role of plastic changes of the human motor system in the acquisition of new fine motor skills. We mapped the cortical motor areasExpand
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and canExpand
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Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects
PRIMARY visual cortex receives visual input from the eyes through the lateral geniculate nuclei, but is not known to receive input from other sensory modalities1. Its level of activity, both at restExpand
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