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Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research
The present updated guidelines review issues of risk and safety of conventional TMS protocols, address the undesired effects and risks of emerging TMS interventions, the applications of TMS in patients with implanted electrodes in the central nervous system, and safety aspects of T MS in neuroimaging environments. Expand
Depression of motor cortex excitability by low‐frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation
Spread of excitation, which may be a warning sign for seizures, occurred in one subject and was not accompanied by increased MEP amplitude, suggesting that spread ofexcitation and amplitude changes are different phenomena and also indicating the need for adequate monitoring even with stimulations at low frequencies. Expand
International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale for pharmacological assessment of the cerebellar syndrome
The scale proposed involves a compartimentalized quantification of postural and stance disorders, limb ataxia, dysarthria and oculomotor disorders, in order that a subscore concerning these symptoms may be separately studied. Expand
Clinical research criteria for the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome)
Criteria that support the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy, and that exclude diseases often confused with PSP, are presented. Expand
Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application. Report of an IFCN committee.
P.M. Rossini (Chairman) (Rome, Baly), A.T. Barker (Sheffield, UK), A. Berardelli (Rome, Italy), M.D. Caramia (Rome, Italy), G. Caruso (Naples, Italy), R.Q. Cracco (Brooklyn, NY;, USA), M.R.Expand
Identifying true brain interaction from EEG data using the imaginary part of coherency
It is possible to reliably detect brain interaction during movement from EEG data and it is argued that the Cartesian representation is far superior for studying brain interactions. Expand
What is the Bereitschaftspotential?
BP is used for detecting the participation of the 'voluntary motor system' in the generation of apparently involuntary movements in patients with psychogenic movement disorders and event-related desynchronization of beta frequency EEG band before self-initiated movements shows a different temporospatial pattern from that of the BP, suggesting different neuronal mechanisms for the two. Expand
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Primer
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a technique for noninvasive stimulation of the human brain that can influence brain function if delivered repetitively, and is being developed for various therapeutic purposes. Expand
Rapid plasticity of human cortical movement representation induced by practice.
Training rapidly, and transiently, established a change in the cortical network representing the thumb, which encoded kinematic details of the practiced movement, suggesting that this phenomenon may be regarded as a short-term memory for movement and be the first step of skill acquisition. Expand
Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills.
Trans transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to study the role of plastic changes of the human motor system in the acquisition of new fine motor skills and the effect of increased hand use without specific skill learning in subjects who played the piano at will for 2 h each day but who were not taught the five-finger exercise. Expand