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Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
TLDR
A genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships and identifies the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups the authors named Passerea and Columbea.
Monitoring endangered freshwater biodiversity using environmental DNA.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that entire faunas of amphibians and fish can be detected by high-throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from pond water, underpin the ubiquitous nature of DNA traces in the environment and establish environmental DNA as a tool for monitoring rare and threatened species across a wide range of taxonomic groups.
Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation
TLDR
This work explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades to reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.
Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring.
An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia
TLDR
It is shown that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago, which is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25, thousands of years ago.
Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo
TLDR
This genome sequence of an ancient human obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
The Use of Coded PCR Primers Enables High-Throughput Sequencing of Multiple Homolog Amplification Products by 454 Parallel Sequencing
TLDR
5'primer tagging is a useful method in which the sequencing power of the GS20 can be applied to PCR-based assays of multiple homologous PCR products, and will be of value to a broad range of research areas.
Origins and Genetic Legacy of Neolithic Farmers and Hunter-Gatherers in Europe
TLDR
The results suggest that migration from southern Europe catalyzed the spread of agriculture and that admixture in the wake of this expansion eventually shaped the genomic landscape of modern-day Europe.
Glacial Survival of Boreal Trees in Northern Scandinavia
TLDR
The presence of a rare mitochondrial DNA haplotype of spruce that appears unique to Scandinavia and with its highest frequency to the west is shown—an area believed to sustain ice-free refugia during most of the last ice age, challenging current views on survival and spread of trees as a response to climate changes.
DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America
TLDR
It is established that humans were present at Paisley 5 Mile Point Caves, in south-central Oregon, by 12,300 14C years B.P, through the recovery of human mitochondrial DNA from coprolites, directly dated by accelerator mass spectrometry.
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