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Habituation revisited: An updated and revised description of the behavioral characteristics of habituation
Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies
Findings confirm that deficits in PPI are evident in schizophrenia-spectrum patients and in certain other disorders in which gating mechanisms are disturbed, consistent with the use of PPI as a cross-species measure of sensorimotor gating.
Gating and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenic patients.
The results indicate that schizophrenic patients have extensive deficits in both intramodal and cross-modal sensorimotor gating and a trend to show acoustic startle habituation deficits.
Prestimulus effects on human startle reflex in normals and schizophrenics.
- D. Braff, C. Stone, E. Callaway, M. Geyer, I. Glick, L. Bali
- Psychology, MedicinePsychophysiology
- 1 July 1978
When 20 normal subjects were compared to 12 schizophrenic subjects, significant differences in eyeblink response were found for blink amplitude and latency in the 60 msec prestimulus condition, which is consistent with information processing “overload” theories of sensory overstimulation in schizophrenia.
Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia. Human and animal model studies.
Human and animal model studies of sensorimotor gating allow investigators to comment on the spatial and temporal mapping of neurons, trait and state deficits, and vulnerability factors in the schizophrenic spectrum of disorders.
Assessing the validity of an animal model of deficient sensorimotor gating in schizophrenic patients.
- N. Swerdlow, D. Braff, N. Taaid, M. Geyer
- Psychology, BiologyArchives of general psychiatry
- 1 February 1994
The loss of PPI in dopamine-activated rats may be a valid animal model of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenic patients and may help to understand the neurobiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
Pharmacological studies of prepulse inhibition models of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia: a decade in review
While the PPI model based on the effects of direct DA agonists is the most well-validated for the identification of known antipsychotic drugs, the isolation rearing model also appears to be sensitive to both typical and atypical antipsychotics, and the 5-HT P PI model is less generally sensitive to antippsychotic medications, but can provide insight into the contribution of serotonergic systems to the actions of newer antipsychosis that act upon multiple receptors.
Neural circuit regulation of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat: current knowledge and future challenges
The understanding of the neural regulation of PPI has increased tremendously over the past 15 years, and progress has come in "broad strokes", but a number of important details and complex questions remain to be addressed.
Cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: characteristics, causes and the quest for improved therapy
This article critically discusses the challenges and opportunities for improving cognition in individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders, highlighting the needs to characterize the cellular and cerebral circuits underpinning cognitive function and identify more effective treatments.