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Cell-penetrating Peptides
TLDR
It is demonstrated here that cell fixation, even in mild conditions, leads to the artifactual uptake of these peptides and that flow cytometry analysis cannot be used validly to evaluate cellular uptake unless a step of trypsin digestion of the cell membrane-adsorbed peptide is included in the protocol. Expand
Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA.
Oligonucleotide primers have been used to generate a cDNA library covering the entire tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA sequence. Analysis of these clones has enabled us to complete the viral RNAExpand
HIV‐1 tat protein stimulates transcription by binding to a U‐rich bulge in the stem of the TAR RNA structure.
TLDR
There is a direct correlation between the ability of tat to bind to TAR RNA and to activate HIV transcription, and Viral LTRs carrying TAR sequences encoding any of the mutations known to produce transcripts which bind tat weakly, are not stimulated efficiently by tat in vivo. Expand
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 tat protein binds trans-activation-responsive region (TAR) RNA in vitro.
tat, the trans-activator protein for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), has been expressed in Escherichia coli from synthetic genes. Purified tat binds specifically to HIV-1Expand
A molecular rheostat. Co-operative rev binding to stem I of the rev-response element modulates human immunodeficiency virus type-1 late gene expression.
TLDR
The data suggest that the RRE acts as a "molecular rheostat" designed to detect rev levels during the early stages of the HIV growth cycle, with the longest truncations producing the greatest losses of activity. Expand
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 regulator of virion expression, rev, forms nucleoprotein filaments after binding to a purine-rich "bubble" located within the rev-responsive region of viral mRNAs.
TLDR
It is proposed that rev regulates human immunodeficiency virus RNA expression by selectively packaging viral transcripts carrying the rev-response element sequence into rod-like nucleoprotein complexes that block splicing of the packaged mRNAs. Expand
High affinity binding of TAR RNA by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 tat protein requires base-pairs in the RNA stem and amino acid residues flanking the basic region.
TLDR
The binding site for tat protein on TAR RNA has been defined in quantitative terms using an extensive series of mutations and the binding of a series of peptides spanning the basic "arginine-rich" sequence of tat was examined using both filter-binding and gel mobility shift assays. Expand
miR-122 targeting with LNA/2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide mixmers, peptide nucleic acids (PNA), and PNA-peptide conjugates.
TLDR
It is shown that lipofection of an antisense oligonucleotide based on a Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA)/2'-O-methyl mixmer or electroporation of a Peptide N nucleic Acid (PNA) oligomer is effective at blocking miR-122 activity in human and rat liver cells. Expand
Oligonucleotide synthesis : a practical approach
An introduction to modern methods of DNA synthesis / Michael J. Gait -- Preparation of protected deoxyribonucleotides / Roger A. Jones -- Solid phase synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides by theExpand
Lung delivery studies using siRNA conjugated to TAT(48-60) and penetratin reveal peptide induced reduction in gene expression and induction of innate immunity.
TLDR
It is suggested that conjugation to cholesterol may extend but not increase siRNA-mediated p38 MAP kinase mRNA knockdown in the lung, and the use of CPP may be limited due to as yet uncharacterized effects upon gene expression and a potential for immune activation. Expand
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