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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
The p38 MAP kinase pathway signals for cytokine‐induced mRNA stabilization via MAP kinase‐activated protein kinase 2 and an AU‐rich region‐targeted mechanism
Findings indicate that the p38 MAP kinase pathway contributes to cytokine/stress‐induced gene expression by stabilizing mRNAs through an MK2‐dependent, ARE‐targeted mechanism.
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
MAPKAP kinases — MKs — two's company, three's a crowd
- M. Gaestel
- BiologyNature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
- 1 February 2006
Three structurally related MAPK-activated protein kinases — MK2, MK3 and MK5 — signal to diverse cellular targets and regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level and are implicated in inflammation and cancer.
Small heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones.
Binding of non‐native protein to Hsp25 during heat shock creates a reservoir of folding intermediates for reactivation
The task of sHsps in this context is to efficiently trap a large number of unfolding proteins in a folding‐competent state and thus create a reservoir of non‐native proteins for an extended period of time, allowing refolding after restoration of physiological conditions in cooperation with other chaperones.
Identification of MAPKAP kinase 2 as a major enzyme responsible for the phosphorylation of the small mammalian heat shock proteins
Regulation of Hsp27 Oligomerization, Chaperone Function, and Protective Activity against Oxidative Stress/Tumor Necrosis Factor α by Phosphorylation*
It is demonstrated that large oligomers of sHsps are necessary for chaperone action and resistance against oxidative stress whereas phosphorylation down-regulates these activities by dissociation of s Hsps complexes to tetramers.
MAPKAP kinase 2 is essential for LPS-induced TNF-alpha biosynthesis.
It is concluded that MK2 is an essential component in the inflammatory response which regulates biosynthesis of TNF-alpha at a post-transcriptional level.
Targeting innate immunity protein kinase signalling in inflammation
Key issues for the development of small-molecule kinase inhibitors as a new generation of oral anti-inflammatory drugs are discussed, including feedback loops, inhibitor specificity and combination therapy.