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Comprehension of human pointing gestures in young human-reared wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris)
TLDR
Wolves can reach the level of dogs in their success of following momentary distal pointing in parallel with improving their readiness to form eye-contact with a human experimenter during several months of formal training.
The effect of development and individual differences in pointing comprehension of dogs
TLDR
The results, analyzed at both the group and the individual levels, showed no difference in the performance according to age, indicating that in dogs the comprehension of the human pointing may require only very limited and rapid early learning to fully develop.
Are readers of our face readers of our minds? Dogs (Canis familiaris) show situation-dependent recognition of human’s attention
TLDR
It is concluded that dogs are able to rely on the same set of human facial cues for detection of attention, which form the behavioral basis of understanding attention in humans.
Explaining Dog Wolf Differences in Utilizing Human Pointing Gestures: Selection for Synergistic Shifts in the Development of Some Social Skills
TLDR
Evidence is provided for the first time that socialised adult wolves are as successful in relying on distal momentary pointing as adult pet dogs, however, the delayed emergence of utilising human distal Momentary pointing in wolves shows that these wild canines react to a lesser degree to intensive socialisation in contrast to dogs, which are able to control agonistic behaviours and inhibition of actions in a food related task early in development.
Effects of selection for cooperation and attention in dogs
TLDR
Evidence is provided that at least two independent phenotypic traits with certain genetic variability affect the ability of dogs to rely on human visual cues and should caution researchers against making simple generalizations about the effects of domestication.
Comprehension of human pointing gestures in horses (Equus caballus)
TLDR
It is revealed that horses could rely spontaneously on those cues that could have a stimulus or local enhancement effect, but the possible comprehension of the distal momentary pointing remained unclear.
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