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Postural Hand Synergies for Tool Use
The results suggest that the control of hand posture involves a few postural synergies, regulating the general shape of the hand, coupled with a finer control mechanism providing for small, subtle adjustments.
Moving effortlessly in three dimensions: does Donders' law apply to arm movement?
- J. Soechting, CA Buneo, U. Herrmann, M. Flanders
- Psychology, BiologyThe Journal of neuroscience : the official…
- 1 September 1995
It was found that, in general, the posture of the arm at a given hand location does depend on the starting location of the movement and that Donders' law is violated in this experimental condition.
Early stages in a sensorimotor transformation
A model for several early stages of the sensorimotor transformations involved in targeted arm movement is presented, suggesting that the combination of these representations of initial and final arm orientations could give rise to the representation of movement direction recorded in the motor cortex by Georgopoulos and his colleagues.
Sensorimotor representations for pointing to targets in three-dimensional space.
It is concluded that subjects have a reasonably accurate visual representation of target location and are able to effectively use kinesthetically derived information about target location.
Errors in pointing are due to approximations in sensorimotor transformations.
It is proposed that errors in pointing occur because subjects implement a linear approximation to the transformation from extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates and that this transformation is one step in the process of transforming a visually derived representation of target location into an appropriate pattern of muscle activity.
Patterns of Hand Motion during Grasping and the Influence of Sensory Guidance
A principal components analysis was developed to provide a concise description of the spatiotemporal patterns underlying the motion of temporal synergies of hand movement and the influence of sensory cues on the control of these synergies.
Muscular and postural synergies of the human hand.
It appears that the organization of the global pattern of hand muscle activation is highly distributed, which mirrors the highly fractured somatotopy of cortical hand representations and may provide an ideal substrate for motor learning and recovery from injury.
Moving in three-dimensional space: frames of reference, vectors, and coordinate systems.
The question of spatial representation is a theme common to a variety of movements in three-dimensional space, and the neural systems involved in the production of each must deal with aspects that are particular to that task.
Arm muscle activation for static forces in three-dimensional space.
It is suggested that multimodal directional tuning results from the convergence of multiple sources of descending signals onto motoneurons, and suggests that arm position is an important determinate of EMG patterns.
Flexibility and Repeatability of Finger Movements During Typing: Analysis of Multiple Degrees of Freedom
The kinematics of the hand and fingers were studied during various keystrokes in typing and a considerable amount of consistency each time a given keystroke was executed by a subject, and this repeatability may imply a reduction in the number of degrees offreedom independently controlled by the nervous system.