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The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size
- J. Hutchinson, D. Schwerda, D. Famini, R. Dale, M. Fischer, R. Kram
- BiologyJournal of Experimental Biology
- 1 October 2006
This large dataset establishes what the normal kinematics of elephant locomotion are, and can be applied to identify gait abnormalities that may signal musculoskeletal pathologies, a matter of great importance to keepers of captive elephants.
Morphological Integration in Mammalian Limb Proportions: Dissociation between Function and Development
Hindlimb proportions are largely uniform across mammals and correspond to biomechanical predictions regarding postural stability, but the greater variability in forelimb proportion is likely be the expression of various adaptations but might results also from constraints due to the shared developmental programs with the hindlimb.
Regionally high rates of hybridization and introgression in German wildcat populations (Felis silvestris, Carnivora, Felidae)
- S. Hertwig, M. Schweizer, S. Stepanow, A. Jungnickel, U. Böhle, M. Fischer
- Biology, Environmental Science
- 1 August 2009
Investigating population structure, evolutionary relationships and degree of hybridization with domestic cats found possible evolutionary reasons for the still traceable genetic integrity of the wildcat despite its long history of interbreeding are discussed.
Basic limb kinematics of small therian mammals.
- M. Fischer, N. Schilling, Manuela Schmidt, Dieter Haarhaus, H. Witte
- BiologyThe Journal of experimental biology
- 1 May 2002
Fundamental changes occur in hindlimb kinematics with the change from symmetrical to in-phase gaits and forward motion of the hindlimbs is now mainly due to sagittal lumbar spine movements contributing to half of the step length.
Gait parameter adjustments of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Callitrichidae) to locomotion on inclined arboreal substrates.
The data support the notion of a wide ranging behavioral plasticity as a general primate locomotor characteristic and propose a hypothesis for the functional relevance of a utilization of lateral sequence gaits in downward locomotion and DS gaiting in upward locomotion.
Arboreal locomotion in rats – the challenge of maintaining stability
Clawed mammals and primates share the reduction of vertical oscillations and side-to-side fluctuations, a crouched posture as well as the increase in lateral spine movements, which are behavioral adaptations caused by the biomechanical constraints of small branch locomotion, regardless of the way they make contact with the substrate.
Crouched posture and high fulcrum, a principle in the locomotion of small mammals: The example of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) (Mammalia: Hyracoidea)
- M. Fischer
- 1 May 1994
The cineradiographic study of the locomotion of the rock hyrax and the functional interpretation of its locomotory system reveals that the main action of proximal segments is combined with flexed position and low movements of limb joints.
Evolution of chameleon locomotion, or how to become arboreal as a reptile.
The tri-segmented limbs of therian mammals: kinematics, dynamics, and self-stabilization--a review.
How the emerging concept of self-stability can be explained for a tri-segmented leg template and how it affects the design of the musculoskeletal system and the operation of legs during locomotion is described.
The kinematic consequences of locomotion on sloped arboreal substrates in a generalized (Rattus norvegicus) and a specialized (Sciurus vulgaris) rodent
The results revealed that rats and European red squirrels utilize comparable locomotor adjustments despite significant differences in travel speed and gait, and suggest that mammals that lack, or have reduced, grasping abilities try to maintain the locomotor mode used during horizontal branch locomotion on inclined branches for as long as possible.