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Trade–off associated with selection for increased ability to resist parasitoid attack in Drosophila melanogaster
TLDR
Working with Drosophila melanogaster and its endoparasitoid Leptopilina boulardi, selected for increased resistance in four replicate populations of flies, revealing substantial additive genetic variation in resistance in the field population from which the culture was established.
Spatio-Temporal Variation in Predation by Urban Domestic Cats (Felis catus) and the Acceptability of Possible Management Actions in the UK
TLDR
Predation did appear to be of sufficient magnitude to affect some prey populations, although further investigation of some key aspects of cat predation is warranted, and management of the predation behavior of urban cat populations in the UK is likely to be challenging and achieving this would require considerable engagement with cat owners.
Learning and natal host influence host preference, handling time and sex allocation behaviour in a pupal parasitoid
TLDR
The results indicate the importance of learning and natal host size in determining P. vindemiae attack rates, mating success, host preference and sex allocation behaviour, all critical components of parasitoid fitness.
The evolutionary ecology of resistance to parasitoids by Drosophila
TLDR
There is now firm evidence that resistance is costly to Drosophila, and the nature of this cost is discussed, andThe possibility that it may involve a reduction in metabolic rate considered, and comparative data on encapsulation and metabolic rates provides support for this hypothesis.
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FEEDING RATE AND PARASITOID RESISTANCE IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
TLDR
It is shown that in both sets of selected lines, lower competitive ability is associated with reduced rates of larval feeding, as measured by the frequency of retractions of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, suggesting that the same or similar physiological processes are involved in the trade‐off between competition and resistance against either parasitoid wasp.
Sex allocation and local mate competition in Old World non-pollinating fig wasps
TLDR
Non-pollinating fig wasps are studied, which are more diverse than the pollinating wasps and provide natural experimental groups of species with different male morphologies that are linked to different mating structures, to predict sex ratios and identify weak selection to adjust the sex ratio in species whose population mating structure tends to be subdivided.
Pupal parasitoid attack influences the relative fitness of Drosophila that have encapsulated larval parasitoids
TLDR
The costs of defensive ability are expressed as a trade‐off with larval competitive ability, whereas the costs of actual defence are exhibited in terms of reduced adult fecundity and size.
CROSS‐RESISTANCE FOLLOWING ARTIFICIAL SELECTION FOR INCREASED DEFENSE AGAINST PARASITOIDS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
TLDR
The type of specificity is important in understanding the evolutionary response to natural enemies and was studied here in a Drosophila‐paxasitoid system, where Lines selected against L. boulardi showed large increases in resistance against all three parasitoid species, and showed similar levels of defense against A. tabida.
Resistance is costly: trade-offs between immunity, fecundity and survival in the pea aphid
TLDR
There is a positive relationship between aphid size and resistance, suggesting that successful resistance to parasitoid attack may involve physical, as well as physiological, defences, and that the aphids can either invest in defence or reproduction.
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