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Age of Neoproterozoic bilatarian body and trace fossils, White Sea, Russia: implications for metazoan evolution.
A uranium-lead zircon age for a volcanic ash interstratified with fossil-bearing, shallow marine siliciclastic rocks in the Zimnie Gory section of the White Sea region indicates that a diverse assemblage of body and trace fossils occurred before 555.3 +/- 0.3 million years ago, making co-occurring trace fossils the oldest that are reliably dated.
The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record
  • M. Fedonkin
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 31 March 2003
It is suggested that oxygenation of the biosphere was not a permissive condition but rather a forcing factor that drove evolution towards the formation of complex biological systems.
New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White Sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary implications
The taphonomic varieties of Kimberella provide new evidence of the animal's anatomy such as: shell morphology, proboscis, mantle, possibly respiratory folds and possibly musculature, stomach and glands.
The Late Precambrian fossil Kimberella is a mollusc-like bilaterian organism
This work reconstructs Kimberella as a bilaterally symmetrical, benthic animal with a non-mineralized, univalved shell, resembling a mollusc in many respects, important evidence for the existence of large triploblastic metazoans in the Precambrian and indicates that the origin of the higher groups of protostomes lies well back in the precambrian.
The Rise of Animals: Evolution and Diversification of the Kingdom Animalia
Five of the world's leading paleontologists take us on a journey to the most important fossil sites that serve as unique windows to the earliest animal life-including the Ediacara Hills of Australia, the Russian taiga and tundra, the deserts of southwest Africa, and the rugged coasts of Newfoundland.
Middle Proterozoic (1.5 Ga) Horodyskia moniliformis Yochelson and Fedonkin, the oldest known tissue-grade colonial eucaryote
Fedonkin, Mikhail A., and Ellis L. Yochelson. Middle Proterozoic (1.5 Ga) Horodyskia moniliformis Yochelson and Fedonkin, the Oldest Known Tissue-Grade Colonial Eucaryote. Smithsonian Contributions
Vendian Faunas and the Early Evolution of Metazoa
Until recently, paleontological data were almost completely ignored by zoologists studying the origin of major groups of invertebrates and the early phylogeny of the Metazoa, chiefly because Charles
Conulariid–like fossil from the Vendian of Russia: a metazoan clade across the Proterozoic/Palaeozoic boundary
A conulariid–like fossil is described for the first time from Upper Vendian (late Neoproterozoic) deposits. Vendoconularia triradiata gen. et sp. nov. is found with other fossils in poorly cemented,