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Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6.
This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease.
Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ
The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain.
Muscle‐derived interleukin‐6: mechanisms for activation and possible biological roles
It appears that intramuscular IL‐6 is stimulated by complex signaling cascades initiated by both calcium (Ca2+) ‐dependent and ‐independent stimuli, and it also seems likely that skeletal muscle produces IL‐ 6 to aid in maintaining metabolic homeostasis during periods of altered metabolic demand such as muscular exercise or insulin stimulation.
HSP72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance
An essential role is identified for HSP72 in blocking inflammation and preventing insulin resistance in the context of genetic obesity or high-fat feeding and protection against diet- or obesity-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance.
Exercise and IL‐6 infusion inhibit endotoxin‐induced TNF‐α production in humans
Physical exercise and rhIL‐6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin‐induced TNF‐α production in humans and suggest that the mechanism include IL‐6, which is produced by and released from exercising muscles.
Interleukin-6 Increases Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Disposal in Humans and Glucose Uptake and Fatty Acid Oxidation In Vitro via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase
It is demonstrated that acute IL- 6 treatment enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans in vivo, while the effects of IL-6 on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in vitro appear to be mediated by AMPK.
Effects of heat stress on physiological responses and exercise performance in elite cyclists.
Data indicate that heat stress is associated with a reduced power output during self-paced exercise in highly trained men, and this decrease in performance appears to be associated with factors associated with body temperature rather than metabolic capacity.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase
These data identify BDNF as a contraction-inducible protein in skeletal muscle that is capable of enhancing lipid oxidation in skeletal Muscle via activation of AMPK.
Exosome-dependent Trafficking of HSP70
It is shown that exosomes, small membrane vesicles that are secreted by numerous cell types, contribute to the release of HSP70 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both basal and stress-induced states, identifying a novel secretory pathway by which HSP 70 can be actively released from cells in both the basal and Stress-induced state.
Reactive oxygen species enhance insulin sensitivity.
Chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria may contribute to the development of insulin resistance, a primary feature of type 2 diabetes. In recent years it has become apparent