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On the water masses and mean circulation of the South Atlantic Ocean
We examine recent observations of water mass distribution and circulation schemes at different depths of the South Atlantic Ocean to propose a layered, qualitative representation of the meanExpand
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Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus
The slowdown in global average surface warming has recently been linked to sea surface cooling in the eastern Pacific Ocean. This work shows that strengthening trade winds caused a reduction in theExpand
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Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming
Extreme El Nino events cause global disruption of weather patterns and affect ecosystems and agriculture through changes in rainfall. Model projections show that a doubling in the occurrence of suchExpand
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Signatures of the Antarctic ozone hole in Southern Hemisphere surface climate change
Roughly 90% of atmospheric ozone is found in the lower stratosphere in the ozone layer. Since about the 1970s, anthropogenic emissions of ozone-depleting gases have led to depletion of ~3–4% of theExpand
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Evolution of the Southern Annular Mode during the past millennium
The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the primary pattern of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere1, 2, influencing latitudinal rainfall distribution and temperatures from the subtropics toExpand
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Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Ice Response to Variations in the Southern Annular Mode
Abstract The coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice response to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is examined in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Coupled Climate ModelExpand
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What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?
Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ‘‘Big Dry’’. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute waterExpand
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Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse 1A from reduced Southern Ocean overturning.
During the last glacial termination, the upwelling strength of the southern polar limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation varied, changing the ventilation and stratification of theExpand
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The Age of Water and Ventilation Timescales in a Global Ocean Model
Abstract The age of water in the World Ocean is studied using a passive age tracer introduced into a global ocean model. Additional information is derived from a transient “dye” tracer that tracksExpand
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Recent Walker circulation strengthening and Pacific cooling amplified by Atlantic warming
The Pacific trade winds have strengthened since the late 1990s, and there has been related strengthening of the atmospheric Walker circulation. Although the impacts of these changes are becomingExpand
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