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Amplification, expression, and packaging of a foreign gene by influenza virus
The data indicate that the 22 5' terminal and the 26 3' terminal bases of the influenza A virus RNA are sufficient to provide the signals for RNA transcription, RNA replication, packaging of RNA into influenza virus particles.
Introduction of site-specific mutations into the genome of influenza virus.
The ability to create viruses with site-specific mutations will allow the engineering of influenza viruses with defined biological properties.
Reverse genetics.
The polyadenylation signal of influenza virus RNA involves a stretch of uridines followed by the RNA duplex of the panhandle structure
The results reveal that a stretch of uninterrupted uridines at the 5' end of the negative-strand RNA is essential for mRNA synthesis, and suggest that the viral RNA polymerase adds poly(A) by a slippage mechanism which occurs when it hits the double-stranded RNA barrier next to the stretch of uridine.
An influenza A virus containing influenza B virus 5' and 3' noncoding regions on the neuraminidase gene is attenuated in mice.
It is shown that an influenza A virus polymerase transcribes and replicates a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene flanked by the nontranslated sequences of an influenza B virus gene, which appears to have many of the properties desirable for a live attenuated virus vaccine.
Influenza virus NS1 protein stimulates translation of the M1 protein
The influenza virus NS1 protein was shown to stimulate translation of the M1 protein. M-CAT RNA, which contains the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene and the terminal noncoding
An influenza virus containing nine different RNA segments.
An influenza virus is engineered which must contain nine different RNA segments rather than the usual eight in order to survive under the experimental growth conditions and this result is compatible with a mechanism of packaging which allows influenza virus to encapsidate more than eight RNA segments.
Influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins stimulate the membrane association of the matrix protein
The highly conserved cytoplasmic tails of the HA and NA play an important role in virus assembly in cells infected with the NA/TAIL(-) transfectant.
Characterization of Influenza Virus NS1 Protein by Using a Novel Helper-Virus-Free Reverse Genetic System
A novel helper-virus-free reverse genetic system to genetically manipulate influenza A viruses and obtained two NS1 mutants,dl12 and N110, indicating the important role of NS1 in translational stimulation of the M1 protein.
High-efficiency formation of influenza virus transfectants
The term influenza virus transfectant be used for those viruses which are made by RNP transfection with cDNA-derived RNA, and genes coding for surface proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) are exchanged.