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Biology Contravenes Taxonomy in the Myxozoa: New Discoveries Show Alternation of Invertebrate and Vertebrate Hosts
For 80 years the infectivity of salmonid whirling disease has eluded discovery. New findings now show that this myxosporean disease of fish is initiated by what is regarded as an actinosporeanExpand
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Experimentally induced whirling disease. II: Determination of longevity of the infective triactinomyxon stage of Myxobolus cerebralis by vital staining
Abstract Effects of temperature and aging on viability and infectivity of laboratory-produced actinosporean triactinomyxon spores (infective stage of the organism causing whirling disease) wereExpand
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Myxosoma cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) Etiologic Agent of Salmonid Whirling Disease Requires Tubificid Worm (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in its Life Cycle
Studies of the life cycle of Myxosoma cerebralis showed that development of infectivity did not occur endogenously but that the spore “aging” process required participation of an aquatic tubificidExpand
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Myxosoma cerebralis: Isolation and Concentration from Fish Skeletal Elements — Sequential Enzymatic Digestions and Purification by Differential Centrifugation
An effective sequential procedure for recovery of Myxosoma cerebralis spores from infected trout was developed, and quantification of spores was carried out at each step of release and concentration.Expand
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Experimentally Induced Whirling Disease I. Dose Response of Fry and Adults of Rainbow Trout Exposed to the Triactinomyxon Stage of Myxobolus cerebralis
Abstract The intensity and prevalence of whirling disease was tested by exposure of 2-monthold fry and 1-, 2-, and 3.5-year-old adults of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to a known number ofExpand
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Salmonid Whirling Disease: Dynamics of Experimental Production of the Infective Stage — the Triactinomyxon Spore
In two trials, spores of the myxosporean Myxosoma cerebralis were added to aquaria containing specific-parasite-free tubificid oligochaetes held at 12.5 °C. After 104–113 d, the tubificids gave riseExpand
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Portals of entry for salmonid whirling disease in rainbow trout
Portals of entry via the skln, fins, buccal cavlty and dlgestlve tract have been demonstrated for the myxozoan that causes salmonld whirling disease Exper~mentally, young rainbow trout SalmoExpand
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Salmonid whirling disease: myxosporean and actinosporean stages cross‐react in direct fluorescent antibody test
. Serologic relatedness of the two life stages of the salmonid whirling disease parasite Myxosoma cerebralis Hofer, 1903 — myxosporean spores from fish cartilage and actinosporean triactinomyxonExpand
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Whirling disease: earliest susceptible age of rainbow trout to the triactinomyxid of Myxobolus cerebralis
Abstract Various developmental stages of eyed eggs and newly hatched sac fry of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were exposed to several concentrations of laboratory produced spores of theExpand
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