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THERMOREGULATORY ADAPTATIONS ALLOWING ECOLOGICAL RANGE EXPANSION BY THE PIERID BUTTERFLY, NATHALIS IOLE BOISDUVAL
  • M. Douglas, J. Grula
  • Biology, Medicine
    Evolution; international journal of organic…
  • 1 December 1978
TLDR
For all organisms, particularly small poikilotherms, extreme seasonal and geographic variations in ambient temperature and solar radiation represent two important factors that regulate seasonal activity and limit local and geographic distributions.
The Lives of Butterflies
Defense of Bracken Fern by Arthropods Attracted to AxillaryNectaries
The phenotypically variable bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, is an economically important plant that establishes dense monocultural stands by spore dispersal and by spreading subterranean
The Great Lakes Entomologist
In this study we show that in South Central Michigan (Pierce Cedar Creek Institute) eight ant species patrol bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) during the sensitive crozier growth stage. At times
Measuring the Effects of “Opportunistic Defense” of the Bracken Fern, (Pteridium Aquilinum) by Patrolling Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute in South Central Michigan
TLDR
The results show that ants do in fact remove some herbivores from bracken fronds during the crozier stage; however, statistical analyses comparing the amount of chewing damage between treated and untreated fronds at the end of the growing season show no statistical difference.
Biodiversity, Phenology, and Thermoregulatory Strategies of Odonates at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute
Forty-three species of dragonflies from five families and sixteen species of damselflies from three families were identified at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute in Hastings, Michigan (latitude 42.6459
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Use of spotted knapweed/star thistle (Asterales: Asteraceae) as the primary source of nectar by early migrating monarch butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from Beaver Island, Michigan.
TLDR
With the advent and continuation of global climate change, the opportunistic evolutionary changes that may take place between migrating monarchs and their dependence on non-native nectariferous plants, prior to migration, is worth further documentation and examination.
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