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Selective expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 on cross-presenting dendritic cells determines cooperation with CD8+ T cells.
The expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 and the function of its ligand XCL1 (otherwise referred to as ATAC, lymphotactin, or SCM-1) remained elusive to date. In the present report weExpand
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Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine-A Summary of Real Cases
Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicityExpand
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Characterization of p87PIKAP, a Novel Regulatory Subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase γ That Is Highly Expressed in Heart and Interacts with PDE3B*
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) γ has been implicated in a vast array of physiological settings including the activation of different leukocyte species and the regulation of myocardialExpand
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Simultaneous quantification of five bacterial and plant toxins from complex matrices using a multiplexed fluorescent magnetic suspension assay.
Proteotoxins such as ricin, abrin, botulinum neurotoxins type A and B (BoNT/A, BoNT/B) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are regarded as potential biological warfare agents which could be usedExpand
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Monitoring of laying capacity, immunoglobulin Y concentration, and antibody titer development in chickens immunized with ricin and botulinum toxins over a two-year period
Abstract One of the key benefits in using chickens for immunization is the high yield of antibodies obtainable. It is known that egg production decreases over time, while animal maintenance costsExpand
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Complexity of botulinum neurotoxins: challenges for detection technology.
The detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is extremely challenging due to their high toxicity and the multiple BoNT variants. To date, seven serotypes with more than 30 subtypes have beenExpand
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A lipid-binding loop of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes B, DC and G is an essential feature to confer their exquisite potency
The exceptional toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is mediated by high avidity binding to complex polysialogangliosides and intraluminal segments of synaptic vesicle proteins embedded in theExpand
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Isolation and Functional Characterization of the Novel Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin A8 Subtype
Botulism is a severe neurological disease caused by the complex family of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT). Based on the different serotypes known today, a classification of serotype variants termedExpand
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De novo subtype and strain identification of botulinum neurotoxin type B through toxin proteomics
AbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism, which can be lethal if untreated. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A–G, defined by their response to antisera. Many serotypesExpand
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The Case of Botulinum Toxin in Milk: Experimental Data
ABSTRACT Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most toxic substance known to man and the causative agent of botulism. Due to its high toxicity and the availability of the producing organism ClostridiumExpand
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