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On the origin of species by sympatric speciation
TLDR
This work uses multilocus genetics to describe sexual reproduction in an individual-based model and considers the evolution of assortative mating, which leads to reproductive isolation between ecologically diverging subpopulations and conforms well with mounting empirical evidence for the sympatric origin of many species.
Evolutionary Branching and Sympatric Speciation Caused by Different Types of Ecological Interactions
TLDR
It is shown that evolution under branching conditions selects for assortativeness and thus allows sexual populations to escape from fitness minima and concludes that evolutionary branching offers a general basis for understanding adaptive speciation and radiation under a wide range of different ecological conditions.
Decoupling function and taxonomy in the global ocean microbiome
TLDR
It is found that environmental conditions strongly influence the distribution of functional groups in marine microbial communities by shaping metabolic niches, but only weakly influence taxonomic composition within individual functional groups.
Models of cooperation based on the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift game
Understanding the mechanisms that can lead to the evolution of cooperation through natural selection is a core problem in biology. Among the various attempts at constructing a theory of cooperation,
The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors
TLDR
This work analyzes the continuous snowdrift game, in which cooperative investments are costly but yield benefits to others as well as to the cooperator, to find out how large asymmetries in cooperative investments can evolve.
Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game
TLDR
The results caution against the common belief that spatial structure is necessarily beneficial for cooperative behaviour, and show that no such general predictions can be made for the effects of spatial structure in the snowdrift game.
Speciation along environmental gradients
TLDR
It is shown that along an environmental gradient, evolutionary branching can occur much more easily than in non-spatial models, and this facilitation is most pronounced for gradients of intermediate slope.
The evolution of interspecific mutualisms.
TLDR
For mutualism to evolve, increased investments in a partner must yield increased returns, and spatial structure in competitive interactions is required, and under these biologically plausible assumptions, mutualism evolves with surprising ease.
A simple and general explanation for the evolution of altruism
TLDR
It is illustrated that while kinship or genetic similarity among those interacting may generate a favourable structure of interaction environments, it is not a fundamental requirement for the evolution of altruism, and even suicidal aid can theoretically evolve without help ever being exchanged among genetically similar individuals.
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