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Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations
TLDR
Two channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, are described, discovered through sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of alga, that enable two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations without detectable cross-talk in mouse brain slice.
Distinct Roles of NR2A and NR2B Cytoplasmic Tails in Long-Term Potentiation
TLDR
Investigation of the roles of NR2A and NR2B in long-term potentiation (LTP) in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures using RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression, to complement pharmacological approaches suggests that theNR2B subunit plays a critical role for LTP, presumably by recruiting relevant molecules important forLTP via its cytoplasmic tail.
NMDA receptor-mediated control of protein synthesis at developing synapses
TLDR
Observations suggest that regulation of peptide elongation via eEF2 phosphorylation can link NMDAR activation to local increases in the synthesis of specific proteins during activity-dependent synaptic change.
Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in the developing mammalian brain
TLDR
A microarray technology that can be used to analyze the expression of microRNAs and of other small RNAs is described, suggesting that micro RNAs play important roles in the development of the mammalian brain.
Postsynaptic BDNF‐TrkB signaling in synapse maturation, plasticity, and disease
TLDR
The current state of understanding BDNF signaling in the context of synaptic development and plasticity is discussed with a focus on the postsynaptic cell and the evidence that basic mechanisms of BDNF function still need to be understood to effectively treat genetic disruptions of these pathways that cause devastating neurodevelopmental diseases is closed.
BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA receptor activation
TLDR
It is shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, NMDAR, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in a single pathway for synaptic potentiation.
Neurons derived from reprogrammed fibroblasts functionally integrate into the fetal brain and improve symptoms of rats with Parkinson's disease
TLDR
It is shown that iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into neural precursor cells, giving rise to neuronal and glial cell types in culture and demonstrating the therapeutic potential of directly reprogrammed fibroblasts for neuronal cell replacement in the animal model.
Neonatal Neuronal Circuitry Shows Hyperexcitable Disturbance in a Mouse Model of the Adult-Onset Neurodegenerative Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
TLDR
These findings underscore the widespread and early onset of abnormal neural activity in this mouse model of the adult neurodegenerative disease ALS, and suggest that suppression of PCNa and hyperexcitability early in life might be one way to mitigate or prevent cell death in the adult CNS.
Temporal Correlations between Functional and Molecular Changes in NMDA Receptors and GABA Neurotransmission in the Superior Colliculus
TLDR
The findings lend support to the idea that high levels of NMDA receptor function are associated with the potential for structural rearrangement in CNS neuropil and that the functional downregulation of this molecule results, at least partially, from changes in its subunit composition.
LTP and activity-dependent synaptogenesis: the more alike they are, the more different they become
TLDR
Several fundamental differences between the environments of young and mature synapses and the neurons that support them suggest that the same cellular mechanism is facilitated by very different parameters in the young versus the mature brain.
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