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Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids—Genotoxicity, Metabolism Enzymes, Metabolic Activation, and Mechanisms
This review presents updated information on the metabolism, metabolizing enzymes, and the mechanisms by which pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert genotoxicity and tumorigenicity.
Mechanism of inhibition of tannic acid and related compounds on the growth of intestinal bacteria.
Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity
The results of recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5HpyrrolIZine (DHP)-derived DNA adduct formation.
Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rats: effects on lymphocytes and the inflammatory response in a chronic intermittent dosing study.
- D. Hinton, M. Myers, M. Chou
- Medicine, BiologyToxicological sciences : an official journal of…
- 1 June 2003
It is concluded that AFB1 effects on the immune system can be either stimulatory or suppressive dependent on a critical exposure window of dose and time.
Metabolic activation of the tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, riddelliine, leading to DNA adduct formation in vivo.
- Y. C. Yang, J. Yan, D. Doerge, P. Chan, P. Fu, M. Chou
- Chemistry, BiologyChemical research in toxicology
The results suggest that riddelliine induces liver tumors in rats through a genotoxic mechanism and the eight DHR-derived DNA adducts are likely to contribute to liver tumor development.
Toxicokinetics of riddelliine, a carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and metabolites in rats and mice.
- Lee D. Williams, M. Chou, Jian Yan, John F. Young, P. Chan, D. Doerge
- Biology, ChemistryToxicology and applied pharmacology
- 15 July 2002
It is concluded that factors other than toxicokinetics are responsible for the observed species/sex specificity of gross toxicity or liver tumor induction in rats and mice.
Comparison of DNA adduct levels associated with oxidative stress in human pancreas.
Human liver microsomal reduction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides to form the corresponding carcinogenic parent alkaloid.
GENOTOXIC PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS AND PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID N-OXIDES—MECHANISMS LEADING TO DNA ADDUCT FORMATION AND TUMORIGENICITY
Evidence is provided suggesting that riddelliine, riddelline N-oxide, and dehydroretronecine (DHR) provided evidence suggesting that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism, and that tumorigenicity is mediated by a set of eight DHR-derived DNA adducts.