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Metallothionein protein evolution: a miniassay
The emergence of life on the authors' planet, since metal ion utilization is accepted to be at the root of the emergence of living organisms, and global trends that underlie structural and functional MT diversification, will be presented. Expand
State-of-the-art of metallothioneins at the beginning of the 21st century
Abstract Metallothioneins (MTs) are a particular type of small metalloprotein that possess a significant amount of Cys residues, which confer upon them an extraordinary capacity for heavy metalExpand
Cryptococcus neoformans copper detoxification machinery is critical for fungal virulence.
It is determined that pulmonary C. neoformans pulmonary infection results in Cu-specific induction of genes encoding the Cu-detoxifying metallothionein (Cmt) proteins, which indicate that the host mobilizes Cu as an innate antifungal defense but C.neoforms senses and neutralizes toxic Cu to promote infection. Expand
The four members of the Drosophila metallothionein family exhibit distinct yet overlapping roles in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification
The preferential protection against copper and cadmium toxicity by MtnA and MtnB, respectively, are the result of a combination of promoter preference and metal binding. Expand
Functional Differentiation in the Mammalian Metallothionein Gene Family
Overall results allow consideration of MT4 as a novel copper-thionein, made up of two copper-Thionein domains, the first of this class reported in mammals, and by extension in vertebrates, to be considered. Expand
Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins
The Roman snail HpCdMT and HpCuMT isoforms are regarded as prototypes of isoform families that evolved genuine metal-specificity within pulmonate molluscs and could also be relevant for other metalloproteins. Expand
Zn- and Cu-thioneins: a functional classification for metallothioneins?
The results yield enough data to consider new criteria for a proposal of classification of MTs based on MT metal-binding features, which complements the previous classifications, and that can shed light on the still controversial physiological functions of this peculiar superfamily of metalloproteins. Expand
A New Insight into Metallothionein (MT) Classification and Evolution
Findings allow consideration of MTH as a zinc thionein and question the view of all crustacea MT structures as copper thioneins and a new approach for the evolutionary and functional classification of MT is proposed, based on the stoichiometry of metal-MT species and molecular phylogenetic analysis. Expand
Independent metal-binding features of recombinant metallothioneins convergently draw a step gradation between Zn- and Cu-thioneins.
A gradation of the metal-binding character of the MTs considered that significantly coincides in a robust new classification: a stepwise gradation between Zn- and Cu-thioneins is revealed. Expand
Iron chemistry at the service of life
An overview of the coordination chemistry of iron that makes it suitable for a large variety of functions within biological systems is presented. Expand