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Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
TLDR
A genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships and identifies the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups the authors named Passerea and Columbea.
Dominant influence of HLA-B in mediating the potential co-evolution of HIV and HLA
TLDR
Analysis of class I restricted CD8+ T-cell responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) indicates that the principal focus of HIV-specific activity is at the HLA-B locus, consistent with the observation that B alleles evolve more rapidly than A alleles.
The molecular classification of the clinical manifestations of Crohn's disease.
TLDR
It is confirmed that alleles on specific long-range HLA haplotypes determine overall susceptibility and novel genetic associations with susceptibility, location, and behavior of Crohn's disease are described.
An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia
TLDR
It is shown that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago, which is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25, thousands of years ago.
Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo
TLDR
This genome sequence of an ancient human obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
HLA alleles determine human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) proviral load and the risk of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.
TLDR
It is shown that, after infection with HTLV-I, the class I allele HLA-A*02 halves the odds of HAM/TSP, implying that an efficient antiviral CTL response can reduce virus load and so prevent disease in persistent virus infections.
Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960
TLDR
The recovery of viral gene sequences from decades-old paraffin-embedded tissues opens the door to a detailed palaeovirological investigation of the evolutionary history of HIV-1 that is not accessible by other methods.
A variant within the DNA repair gene XRCC3 is associated with the development of melanoma skin cancer.
TLDR
The presence of a T allele in exon 7 (position 18067) of the XRCC3 gene was significantly associated with melanoma development, and may provide further insights into the pathogenesis and the mechanism of UV-radiation induced carcinogenesis as well as having a role in prevention.
The evolutionary history of the extinct ratite moa and New Zealand Neogene paleogeography
TLDR
This work synthesizes mitochondrial phylogenetic information from 263 subfossil moa specimens from across NZ with morphological, ecological, and new geological data to create the first comprehensive phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolutionary timeframe for all of the species of an extinct order.
The Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues–Which Methods Are Useful When?
TLDR
This study investigates the quality of nucleic acids recovered from a test panel of fixed specimens that have been manipulated following a number of the published protocols, and provides a quick reference table that can be used to determine appropriate protocols for particular aims.
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