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Tectonic Uplift and Eastern Africa Aridification
TLDR
This work suggests that the uplift of eastern African topography led to a drastic reorganization of atmospheric circulation, engendering the strong aridification and paleoenvironmental changes suggested by the data.
A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa
TLDR
The discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad, central Africa, 2,500 km from the East African Rift Valley, suggest that the earliest members of the hominids clade were more widely distributed than has been thought, and that the divergence between the human and chimpanzee lineages was earlier than indicated by most molecular studies.
Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad
TLDR
The fauna from Toros-Menalla site 266 suggests that S. tchadensis lived close to a lake, but not far from a sandy desert, perhaps the oldest record of desert conditions in the Neogene of northern central Africa.
The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)
TLDR
This new find from Chad documents the presence of an early hominid a considerable distance, 2,500 km, west of the Rift Valley, which is most similar in morphology to Australopithecus afarensis.
New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad
TLDR
New dental and mandibular specimens from three Toros-Menalla fossiliferous localities of the same age are described, including a lower canine consistent with a non-honing C/P3 complex, post-canine teeth with primitive root morphology and intermediate radial enamel thickness, which confirm the morphological differences between S. tchadensis and African apes.
Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad
TLDR
A chronological constraint is an important cornerstone both for establishing the earliest stages of hominid evolution and for new calibrations of the molecular clock.
The Age of the Sahara Desert
TLDR
The discovery of 7,000,000-year-old eolian dune deposits from the northern Chad Basin is reported on, which is the oldest known evidence for desert occurrence in the Sahara.
Virtual cranial reconstruction of Sahelanthropus tchadensis
TLDR
A detailed virtual reconstruction of the TM 266 cranium confirms that S. tchadensis is a hominid and is not more closely related to the African great apes, and indicates that bipedalism was present in the earliest known hominids, and probably arose soon after the divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages.
The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla.
TLDR
This morphological analysis of a comprehensive set of taxa and characters offers a robust solution to the origins of Hippopotamidae, which appears to be deeply nested within the otherwise extinct artiodactyl family Anthracotheriidae, most precisely within the most advanced selenodont forms.
Macrovertebrate Paleontology and the Pliocene Habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus
TLDR
Although the Early Pliocene Afar included a range of environments, and the local environment at Aramis and its vicinity ranged from forests to wooded grasslands, the integration of available physical and biological evidence establishes Ar.
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