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Escherichia coli harboring Shiga toxin 2 gene variants: frequency and association with clinical symptoms.
Stx2c-positive STEC isolates can cause HUS, but the presence of stx2d or stX2e may predict a milder disease with a minimal risk of HUS. Expand
Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study.
Augmented adherence of the strain to intestinal epithelium might facilitate systemic absorption of Shiga toxin and could explain the high progression to haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Expand
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine.
This review will focus on the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of EHEC-associated diseases, and illustrate future challenges and opportunities for their control. Expand
Prospective Genomic Characterization of the German Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 Outbreak by Rapid Next Generation Sequencing Technology
It is suggested that by stepwise gain and loss of chromosomal and plasmid-encoded virulence factors, a highly pathogenic hybrid of EAEC and EHEC emerged as the current outbreak clone. Expand
Shiga toxin activatable by intestinal mucus in Escherichia coli isolated from humans: predictor for a severe clinical outcome.
Production of Stx2d(activatable) by the infecting STEC may predict a severe clinical outcome of the infection, with progression to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Expand
Sorbitol-Fermenting Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H− Strains: Epidemiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics, and Microbiological Diagnosis
This review summarizes the current knowledge on the significance of sorbitol-fermenting (SF) STEC O157:H− strains as causes of human diseases, the epidemiology of the infection, phenotypic and molecular characteristics of these pathogens, and strategies that are available for their microbiological diagnosis. Expand
Analysis of Collection of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome–associated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Multilocus sequence typing of 169 non-O157 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) demonstrated 29 different sequence types (STs); 78.1%Expand
Molecular characteristics and epidemiological significance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains.
The emergence of a new clonal subgroup characterized by PFGE pattern A and a unique combination of virulence markers including stx(2) and a single, approximately 90-kb plasmid harboring the enterhemorrhagic E. coli hlyA and etp genes is demonstrated. Expand
Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene Cluster in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichiacoli O157:H− and O157:H7: Characterization and Evolutionary Considerations
The data demonstrate that cdt, encoding a potential virulence factor, is present in the EHEC O157 complex and suggest thatcdt may have been acquired by phage transduction. Expand
Characterization of Cytolethal Distending Toxin Genes and Expression in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains of Non-O157 Serogroups
ABSTRACT We identified cytolethal distending toxin and its gene (cdt) in 17 of 340 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (serotypes O73:H18, O91:H21, O113:H21, and O153:H18),Expand