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The skeletal attachment of tendons--tendon "entheses".
Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments — an adaptation to compressive load
Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed, but at some locations fibrocartilaginous is a sign of pathology.
Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites (‘entheses’) in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load
- M. Benjamin, H. Toumi, J. Ralphs, G. Bydder, T. Best, S. Milz
- MedicineJournal of anatomy
- 1 April 2006
This review focuses on the structure–function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction, and the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport.
The fascia of the limbs and back – a review
- M. Benjamin
- MedicineJournal of anatomy
- 1 January 2009
Among the many functions of fascia considered in detail are its ectoskeletal role, its importance for creating osteofascial compartments for muscles, encouraging venous return in the lower limb, dissipating stress concentration at entheses and acting as a protective sheet for underlying structures.
The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome
The clinical anatomy of the region is re‐evaluate to challenge the view that the ITB moves antero‐posteriorly over the epicondyle, and suggest that it creates the illusion of movement, because of changing tension in its anterior and posterior fibres during knee flexion.
The anatomical basis for disease localisation in seronegative spondyloarthropathy at entheses and related sites
It is proposed that the inflammatory responses characteristic of spondyloarthropathies are triggered at these seemingly diverse sites, in genetically susceptible individuals, by a combination of anatomical factors which lead to higher levels of tissue microtrauma, and the deposition of microbes.
The anatomy of the Achilles tendon
The Achilles tendon is the strongest and thickest tendon in the body and serves to attach the triceps surae (soleus and the two heads of gastrocnemius) to the calcaneus and it has been suggested that the tendon has helped to shape human evolution.
The histology of tendon attachments to bone in man.
Based on a parallel study of a wide range of human tendons from embalmed dissecting room subjects and from a study of dried bones, an explanation is offered for the well known similarity in gross appearance between the markings left by certain tendons and by articular surfaces on dried bones.
Tendon cells in vivo form a three dimensional network of cell processes linked by gap junctions.
The results indicate the presence of a 3-dimensional communicating network of cell processes within tendons and the intimate relationship between cell processes and collagen fibril bundles suggests that the cell process network could be involved in load sensing and coordination of response to load.
The mechanism of formation of bony spurs (enthesophytes) in the achilles tendon.
Bony spurs can develop in the Achilles tendon without the need for preceding microtears or any inflammatory reaction, and they form by endochondral ossification of enthesis fibrocartilage.