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Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes
TLDR
Genome sequences reveal that a deluge of DNA from organelle DNA has constantly been bombarding the nucleus since the origin of organelles, abolished organelle autonomy and increased nuclear complexity.
Haustorially Expressed Secreted Proteins from Flax Rust Are Highly Enriched for Avirulence Elicitors[W]
Rust fungi, obligate biotrophs that cause disease and yield losses in crops such as cereals and soybean (Glycine max), obtain nutrients from the host through haustoria, which are specialized
Direct protein interaction underlies gene-for-gene specificity and coevolution of the flax resistance genes and flax rust avirulence genes.
TLDR
It is shown that the flax rust fungus AvrL567 genes, whose products are recognized by the L5, L6, and L7 R proteins of flax, are highly diverse, with 12 sequence variants identified from six rust strains and suggested to represent an alternative outcome of plant-pathogen coevolution to indirect recognition associated with simple balanced polymorphisms for functional and nonfunctional R and Avr genes.
Emergence and Spread of New Races of Wheat Stem Rust Fungus: Continued Threat to Food Security and Prospects of Genetic Control.
TLDR
Enhanced research in the last decade under the umbrella of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative has identified various race-specific resistance genes that can be utilized, preferably in combinations, to develop resistant varieties.
The Melampsora lini AvrL567 Avirulence Genes Are Expressed in Haustoria and Their Products Are Recognized inside Plant Cells
TLDR
Differences in the three AvrL567 protein sequences result from diversifying selection, which is consistent with a coevolutionary arms race.
A recently evolved hexose transporter variant confers resistance to multiple pathogens in wheat
TLDR
The wheat Lr67 gene is isolated, which confers partial resistance to all three wheat rust pathogen species and powdery mildew, and exerts a dominant-negative effect through heterodimerization with these functional transporters to reduce glucose uptake.
The L6 gene for flax rust resistance is related to the Arabidopsis bacterial resistance gene RPS2 and the tobacco viral resistance gene N.
TLDR
The L6 rust resistance gene from flax was cloned after tagging with the maize transposable element Activator and the truncated product of L6, which lacks most of the leucine-rich C-terminal region, is similar to the truncation product that is predicted from an alternative transcript of the N gene.
Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus
TLDR
A quantitative estimate of one transposition event in about 16,000 pollen grains for the frequency of transfer of cpDNA to the nucleus in tobacco occurs at a rate that must have significant consequences for existing nuclear genes.
Inactivation of the flax rust resistance gene M associated with loss of a repeated unit within the leucine-rich repeat coding region.
The M rust resistance gene from flax was cloned after two separate approaches, an analysis of spontaneous M mutants with an L6 gene-derived DNA probe and tagging with the maize transposon Activator,
Molecular Characterization of the Maize Rp1-D Rust Resistance Haplotype and Its Mutants
TLDR
Analytical analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D, which belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes.
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