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Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and
Effects of Working-Memory Training on Striatal Dopamine Release
TLDR
Results showed that updating affected DA activity before training and that training further increased striatal DA release during updating, highlighting the pivotal role of transient neural processes associated with D2 receptor activity in working memory.
Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
TLDR
Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling.
The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
TLDR
Results support the radial unit hypothesis that different developmental mechanisms promote surface area expansion and increases in thickness and find evidence that brain structure is a key phenotype along the causal pathway that leads from genetic variation to differences in general cognitive function.
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: increased supplementary motor activity accounts for improvement after CSF drainage.
TLDR
The results suggest that motor function recovery in INPH patients after CSF removal is related to enhanced activity in medial parts of frontal motor areas considered crucial for motor planning; a finding consistent with INPH being a syndrome related to a reversible suppression of frontal periventricular cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical pathways.
Dopamine D2 receptor availability is linked to hippocampal–caudate functional connectivity and episodic memory
TLDR
Results from 181 healthy adults who underwent comprehensive assessment of episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed indicate that D2DRs make a specific contribution to hippocampus-based cognition by influencing striatal and hippocampal regions, and their interactions.
Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
TLDR
It is shown that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg=−0.155), and these findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampus volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
Age-related and Genetic Modulation of Frontal Cortex Efficiency
TLDR
Inverted relations of the fMRI BOLD signal during working memory maintenance and manipulation was examined in relation to aging and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met status to support a link between dopamine and DLPFC efficiency.
Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
TLDR
Genome-wide analysis identifies variants associated with the volume of seven different subcortical brain regions defined by magnetic resonance imaging, uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
Lesser Neural Pattern Similarity across Repeated Tests Is Associated with Better Long-Term Memory Retention
TLDR
This study demonstrates that repeated memory retrieval might strengthen memory by inducing more differentiated or elaborated memory representations in the parietal cortex, and at the same time reducing demands on prefrontal-cortex-mediated cognitive control processes during retrieval.
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