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Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity,
TLDR
This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro and how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell–derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes.
Reactive Oxygen Species as a Signal in Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion
TLDR
Findings suggest that H2O2 derived from glucose metabolism is one of the metabolic signals for insulin secretion, whereas oxidative stress may disturb its signaling function.
Human exposure and internal dose assessments of acrylamide in food.
Organotypic liver culture models: Meeting current challenges in toxicity testing
TLDR
The current and ongoing need for more relevant, organotypic in vitro surrogate systems of human liver and recent efforts to recreate the multicellular architecture and hemodynamic properties of the liver using novel culture platforms are described.
Formaldehyde: integrating dosimetry, cytotoxicity, and genomics to understand dose-dependent transitions for an endogenous compound.
TLDR
Dose dependencies in MOA, high background FAcetal, and nonlinear FA cetal/GSH tissue kinetics indicate that FA concentrations below 1 or 2 ppm would not increase risk of cancer in the nose or any other tissue or affect FA homeostasis within epithelial cells.
Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Implications for Human Health Risk Assessment
TLDR
The report describes how current and anticipated scientific advances can be expected to transform toxicity testing to permit broader coverage of the universe of potentially toxic chemicals to which humans may be exposed, using more timely and more cost‐effective methods for toxicity testing.
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