What is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, and What Causes It?
To suggest how intervertebral disc degeneration might be distinguished from the physiologic processes of growth, aging, healing, and adaptive remodeling, and to simplify the issue of causality.
Biomechanics of Back Pain
- M. Adams
- MedicineAcupuncture in Medicine
- 19 August 2002
A mechanistic account of back pain is offered which attempts to incorporate all of the most important recent advances in spinal research, and the concept of ‘functional pathology’ is introduced, according to which, back pain can arise because postural habits generate painful stress concentrations within innervated tissues, even though the stresses are not high enough to cause physical disruption.
Mechanical initiation of intervertebral disc degeneration.
Comparisons with the results from tissue culture experiments indicated that the observed changes in matrix compressive stress would inhibit disc cell metabolism throughout the disc, and could lead to progressive deterioration of the matrix.
Personal risk factors for first-time low back pain.
Personal risk factors explained up to 12% of first-time low back pain and physical factors had the most influence in a sub-population of volunteers who were new to the job.
Gradual Disc Prolapse
Tests on ten older discs with pre-existing ruptures showed that such discs are stable and do not leak nuclear pulp, and six discs developed a gradual prolapse during the testing period.
Biomechanics of the human intervertebral disc: A review of testing techniques and results.
'Stress' distributions inside intervertebral discs
The effect of posture on the role of the apophysial joints in resisting intervertebral compressive forces.
Cadaveric lumbar intervertebral joints were loaded to simulate the erect standing posture (lordosis), and the erect sitting posture (slightly flexed) and the results show that the apophysial joints resist about 16 per cent of the interverTEbral compressive forces in the erectStanding posture, whereas in the erection sitting posture they resist none.
Effect of sustained loading on the water content of intervertebral discs: implications for disc metabolism.
A comparison with previously published work suggests that fluid exchange of this magnitude will have a considerable effect on disc cell metabolism and on metabolite transport.
Internal Intervertebral Disc Mechanics as Revealed by Stress Profilometry
- M. Adams
- 1 January 1992
The technique developed showed that the mechanical behavior of individual disc tissues was dependent not only on their location, but also on the loading and loading history of the disc.