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Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the(More)
Four natural murine interferon-alpha genes (MuIFN-alpha 1, -alpha 2, -alpha 4 and -alpha 6) and four hybrid genes (alpha 1 alpha 4, alpha 2 alpha 4, alpha 4 alpha 1 and alpha 4 alpha 2) were transiently expressed in monkey COS cells under the transcriptional control of the simian virus 40 early promoter. The proteins were labelled with [35S]methionine(More)
Based on amino-acid sequence data from Aspergillus niger alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B (ABF B), and cyanogen bromide fragments derived thereof, deoxyoligonucleotide mixtures were designed to be employed as primers in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on A. niger genomic DNA. This resulted in amplification of three related PCR products. The abfB gene(More)
Two leftward Pc promoters for the repressor gene of bacteriophage Mu have been localized by fusions of the promoter region to the structural galK gene and by S1 nuclease mapping. Transcription initiated at the left-end-proximal promoter (Pc-1) starts 23 bp ahead of the c gene. The second promoter (Pc-2) is located 200 bp from the translation start codon of(More)
CHO cell lines that constitutively produce the murine interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) subspecies alpha 4 and alpha 6 were constructed. The producer cell lines were protected against viral (vesicular stomatitis virus) infection by the IFN species secreted, but were resistant to the growth inhibitory activity of the IFN species. As compared with alpha 4, the(More)
As described earlier the protein products of the murine interferon (IFN) genes MuIFN-alpha 1, -alpha 2, and -alpha 4 differ in their antiviral activity on hamster (CHO) and mouse (L929) cells. For structure-function analysis, hybrids were prepared between the three genes using common restriction enzyme sites. Natural and hybrid genes were transiently(More)
Murine interferon-alpha 1 and murine interferon-alpha 4 share 80% of their amino acids, yet the proteins differ considerably in their ability to protect mouse or hamster cells against viral infection. With the aim of localizing areas within these proteins which influence the biological response we have constructed hybrid alpha 1 alpha 4 genes by means of(More)
A mouse interferon alpha gene (MuIFN-alpha 10) was isolated from a BALB/c cosmid genomic library. The gene was located on a 1.8 kb HindIII fragment and a 5.1 kb EcoRI fragment. The coding region and parts of the 5' and 3' non-coding regions were sequenced. The results showed that the MuIFN-alpha 10 gene encoded a protein of 167 amino acids. Like most other(More)
With the aim to assign differences in activity between murine interferon-alpha 1 and -alpha 4 to specific amino acids, we have constructed hybrid genes and analysed the antiviral properties of the corresponding hybrid proteins. The hybrid genes were constructed by means of homologous recombination between the alpha 1 and alpha 4 genes in Escherichia coli.(More)
Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which only H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites are formed. One is lethal and gives rise to(More)