M Zafri Humayun

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The availability of two complete Helicobacter pylori genome sequences and recent studies of its population genetics have provided a detailed picture of genetic diversity in this important human gastric pathogen. It is believed that, in addition to genetic recombination, de novo mutation could have a role in generating the high level of genetic variation in(More)
Environmental and physiological stress conditions can transiently alter the fidelity of DNA replication. The DNA damage-mediated SOS response in Escherichia coli is the best-known example of such an 'inducible mutagenesis' or 'transient mutator' pathway. Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a number of other stress-inducible pathways that also affect(More)
The human gastric pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori lacks a MutSLH-like DNA mismatch repair system. Here, we have investigated the functional roles of a mutS homologue found in H. pylori, and show that it plays an important physiological role in repairing oxidative DNA damage. H. pylori mutS mutants are more sensitive than wild-type cells to(More)
Most mutagenic DNA lesions are noninstructive in the sense that template instruction is either missing or inaccessible during DNA replication, leading to replication arrest. According to the SOS hypothesis, arrested replication induces the expression of SOS factors that force replication past stalled sites at the cost of mutagenesis. We have recently shown(More)
Noninstructive DNA damage in Escherichia coli induces SOS functions hypothesized to be required for mutagenesis and translesion DNA synthesis at noncoding DNA lesions. We have recently demonstrated that in E. coli cells incapable of SOS induction, prior UV-irradiation nevertheless strongly enhances mutagenesis at a noninstructive lesion borne on M13 DNA.(More)
The Escherichia coli UVM response is a recently described phenomenon in which pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV or alkylating agents significantly enhances mutation fixation at a model mutagenic lesion (3,N4-ethenocytosine; epsilon C) borne on a transfected M13 single-stranded DNA genome. Since UVM is observed in delta recA cells in(More)
Several size classes of small polydisperse circular (spc) DNA from the African green monkey cell line BSC1 have been cloned into the bacterial plasmid pBR322. Analysis of the cloned spc DNA fragments as well as total spc DNA reveals that (a) most or all cloned spc DNAs share homologies with chromosomal sequences, (b) both unique and repetitive chromosomal(More)
The activated form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes covalent modification primarily of guanine residues, leading to alkali-labile sites in DNA. A simple extension of the Maxam-Gilbert procedure for sequence analysis permits the identification of alkali-labile sites induced by AFB1 and determination of the frequency of alkali-labile AFB1 modifications at(More)