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There is increasing, although largely indirect, evidence that neurotrophic factors not only function as target-derived survival factors for projection neurons, but also act locally to regulate developmental processes. We studied the expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and the CNTF-specific ligand-binding alpha-subunit of the CNTF receptor(More)
Using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we investigated the morphological changes of retinal tissues and the reaction of Müller cells in the ischemic rat retina induced by increasing intraocular pressure. At early stages (from 1 h to 24 h after reperfusion), cells in the ganglion cell layer and in the inner nuclear layer showed some degenerative(More)
To investigate a potential role of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in transient global ischemia, we have studied the postischemic regulatory changes in the expression of CNTF and its receptor, the ligand-binding alpha-subunit (CNTFRalpha). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated CNTF levels were slightly upregulated already during the first day after ischemia(More)
The birthdates of GABAergic amacrine cells in the rat retina were investigated by immunocytochemistry using anti-GABA and anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) antisera. The ratio of co-localization of GABA to BrdU increased gradually from embryonic-day 13 (E13) and showed a peak value on E18 in the central retina and on E20 in the periphery. After birth, until(More)
Activation of cultured rat microglial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced outward rectifying K+ (K(V)) current in addition to already existing inward rectifying K+ current (K(IR)). By measuring zero-current membrane-potentials using whole-cell patch-clamp method, we showed that K(V) current plays a direct role in setting membrane potential to near(More)
The fate of calbindin D28k (calbindin)-labeled horizontal cells in the ischemic rat retina induced by increasing intraocular pressure was investigated by immunocytochemistry using an antiserum against calbindin. In the normal retina, strong calbindin-like immunoreactivity was seen in the horizontal cells, and the density of the labelled horizontal cells was(More)
Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised,(More)
We have investigated the expression and cellular localization of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the rat retina following ischemia induced by transiently increasing the intraocular pressure. In the normal retina, CNTF immunoreactivity was restricted to profiles in the ganglion cell layer. Following ischemia and reperfusion, immunoreactivity appeared(More)
There is evidence that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in reactive changes following lesions of the nervous system. To investigate, whether differences in the regulation of CNTF and CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFRalpha) contribute to the differences in PNS and CNS responses to injury, we have studied their expression on the mRNA and protein level(More)
Examining the distribution of osteopontin (OPN) in the rat brain using in situ hybridization, it was found that OPN mRNA was restricted to likely neurons in the olfactory bulb and the brain stem; it was not detected in the telencephalon and the diencephalon. In addition, Northern blot analysis showed a confined expression only in the brain stem with higher(More)