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OBJECTIVE Vessels in inflamed lymph nodes are dilated compared with vessels in lymph nodes involved with metastases, which may be compressed by tumor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the Doppler spectral waveform might be different in lymph nodes involved by benign disease and those involved by metastases. We compared spectral waveforms of benign(More)
We investigate collective synchronization in a system of coupled oscillators on small-world networks. The order parameters that measure synchronization of phases and frequencies are introduced and analyzed by means of dynamic simulations and finite-size scaling. Phase synchronization is observed to emerge in the presence of even a tiny fraction P of(More)
BACKGROUND This phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of everolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in locally advanced or metastatic thyroid cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with thyroid cancer of any histology that was resistant or not appropriate for (131)I received everolimus 10 mg daily orally until(More)
While shorter characteristic path length has in general been believed to enhance synchronizability of a coupled oscillator system on a complex network, the suppressing tendency of the heterogeneity of the degree distribution, even for shorter characteristic path length, has also been reported. To see this, we investigate the effects of various factors such(More)
We examined the effect of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), a corticosteroid, on the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activation in the retina of a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). OIR was induced by exposure of hyperoxia (80% oxygen) to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats from P2 to P14 and then(More)
AIMS To assess calcarine activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. METHODS 14 amblyopes (eight anisometropic and six strabismic) were studied with fMRI using stimuli of checkerboards of various checker sizes and temporal frequencies. While T2* weighted MRI were obtained every 3(More)
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND Strabismus and anisometropia early in life frequently causes monocular amblyopia. Activation of the visual cortex is compared between the two types of amblyopia to elucidate differences in the pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. METHODS Using an EPI gradient echo sequence in 1.5T MRI, calcarine activation by monocular viewing(More)
A two-dimensional small-world-type network, subject to spatial prisoners' dilemma dynamics and containing an influential node defined as a special node, with a finite density of directed random links to the other nodes in the network, is numerically investigated. It is shown that the degree of cooperation does not remain at a steady state level but displays(More)
In the recent study of the Ising model on a small world network by Pekalski [Phys. Rev. E 64, 057104 (2001)], a surprisingly small value of the critical exponent beta approximately 0.0001 has been obtained for the temperature dependence of the magnetization. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the same model and conclude, via the standard(More)
Pancreatic beta-cells are clustered in islets of Langerhans, which are typically a few hundred micrometers in a variety of mammals. In this study, we propose a theoretical model for the growth of pancreatic islets and derive the islet size distribution, based on two recent observations: First, the neogenesis of new islets becomes negligible after some(More)