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In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans but also in a wide range of other animal species. Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other contexts. From an adaptive perspective, the evolution of animal(More)
The phenomenon of inbreeding depression is well documented and behavioral adaptations for inbreeding avoidance have been described. However, there is debate over whether inbreeding depression is always an important selective force on behavior. Here, we summarize recent evidence for inbreeding depression under natural conditions, review inbreeding avoidance(More)
The aim of this study was to compare functional cerebral hemodynamic signals obtained simultaneously by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The contribution of superficial layers (skin and skull) to the NIRS signal was also assessed. Both methods were used to generate functional maps of the motor cortex(More)
Personality differences are a widespread phenomenon throughout the animal kingdom. Past research has focused on the characterization of such differences and a quest for their proximate and ultimate causation. However, the consequences of these differences for ecology and evolution received much less attention. Here, we strive to fill this gap by providing a(More)
We evaluated the role of rituximab (R) both in remission induction and maintenance treatment of relapsed/resistant follicular lymphoma (FL). A total of 465 patients were randomized to induction with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) (every 3 weeks) or R-CHOP (R: 375 mg/m(2) intravenously, day 1). Those in complete(More)
In many animal species, individuals differ consistently in suites of correlated behaviors, comparable with human personalities. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the fundamental factors structuring personality differences is the responsiveness of individuals to environmental stimuli. Whereas some individuals tend to be highly responsive to such(More)
We develop a conceptual framework for the understanding of animal personalities in terms of adaptive evolution. We focus on two basic questions. First, why do behavioural types exhibit limited behavioural plasticity, that is, behavioural correlations both across contexts and over time? Second, how can multiple behavioural types coexist within a single(More)
In this paper we review recent models that provide adaptive explanations for animal personalities: individual differences in behaviour (or suites of correlated behaviours) that are consistent over time or contexts. We start by briefly discussing patterns of variation in behaviour that have been documented in natural populations. In the main part of the(More)
We have noninvasively studied the motor cortex hemodynamics in human subjects under rest and motor stimulation conditions using a multichannel near-infrared tissue spectrometer. Our instrument measures optical maps of the cerebral cortex at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), with an acquisition time of 160 ms per map. We obtained optical maps of oxy- and(More)
High-dose cytarabine (ara-c) may overcome cytarabine resistance in leukemic blasts. It has been used as a successful salvage and in postremission therapy but not as initial induction treatment. Patients aged 15 to 60 years, presenting with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were randomized to receive either high-dose cytarabine, 3 g/m2 12 hourly(More)