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Ca2+ is a critical intracellular second messenger, but few studies have examined Ca2+ signaling in whole organs. The amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ oscillations encode important cellular information. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy in the indo 1 acetoxymethyl ester dye-loaded rat liver, we investigated the effect of various Ca2+ agonists that act(More)
One hypothesis is that postnatal liver growth involves replication of mature hepatocytes, which have an unlimited proliferative potential. An alternative viewpoint is that only certain periportal cells can replicate extensively and that daughter cells stream slowly from the periportal to the pericentral region of the liver. Transgenic mice expressing the(More)
Factor X deficiency results in a rare but serious bleeding disorder that might be treated by expressing a normal factor X gene in patients. We generated an amphotropic retroviral vector with the human FX cDNA and delivered it to rat hepatocytes in vivo during liver regeneration. The human alpha1-antitrypsin promoter was chosen to direct expression because(More)
Hepatic gene therapy might correct the clinical manifestations of several genetic disorders in patients. Although retroviral vectors with a strong liver-specific promoter can result in stable and therapeutic levels of expression of genes from the liver, application of these techniques in humans is limited by the need to perform one or more invasive(More)
Hepatic gene therapy could be used to treat a number of inherited blood diseases such as hemophilia or thrombophilia. Although liver-directed retroviral transduction can result in long-term gene expression in vivo, the low level of protein production has limited its clinical application. We reasoned that the insertion of liver-specific promoters into(More)
Hepatic gene therapy could improve the treatment of many inherited disorders. Although retroviral vectors result in long-term expression in hepatocytes in vivo, their low level of expression currently precludes most clinical applications. Four copies of the liver-specific apolipoprotein E (ApoE) enhancer were placed upstream of the human ai-antitrypsin(More)
Protein C deficiency results in a thrombotic disorder that might be treated by expressing a normal human protein C (hPC) gene in patients. An amphotropic retroviral vector with a liver-specific promoter and the hPC cDNA was delivered to rat hepatocytes in vivo during liver regeneration. Expression of hPC varied from 55 to 203 ng/ml (1.3-5.0% of normal) for(More)
Regulatory cells developed after donor-specific transfusion (DST)-induced acceptance of a LEW heart transplanted into a DA rat. Both DST and the cardiac transplant were necessary to generate the regulatory cells. This donor-specific tolerance can then be transferred into a new DA recipient by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from the DST-treated long term(More)
An understanding of how oncogenes affect differentiated liver functions might lead to improved treatments for liver cancer or other disorders where liver-specific functions are compromised. A retroviral vector that coexpressed beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and activated Ras genes (Ras-gal) was transduced into a small fraction of adult rat hepatocytes in(More)