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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Arabidopsis abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive abi4 mutants have pleiotropic defects in seed development, including decreased sensitivity to ABA inhibition of germination and altered seed-specific gene expression. This phenotype is consistent with a role for ABI4 in regulating seed responses to ABA and/or seed-specific signals. We isolated the ABI4 gene by(More)
Norwalk virus capsid protein was produced by expression of the second and third open reading frames of the Norwalk virus genome, using a cell-free translation system and baculovirus recombinants. Analysis of the expressed products showed that the second open reading frame encodes a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 58,000 (58K protein) and that(More)
In humans the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes encode four classes of proteins (GST) important in the detoxification of reactive electrophiles. Recently, a gene deletion polymorphism was discovered within the GST class theta locus that leads to a functional deficiency in GST theta activity within circulating red blood cells. In this study we have(More)
A library of overlapping cDNAs obtained from Norwalk virus purified from stools of human volunteers (Jiang et al., 1990, Science 250, 1580-1583) was used to obtain the nucleotide sequence of the viral genome. The sequence has a total of 7642 nucleotides, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail, and has a base composition of 48% G + C. Three open reading frames (ORF)(More)
The identification and epitope mapping of broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies (Abs) is important for vaccine design, but, despite much effort, very few such Abs have been forthcoming. Only one broadly neutralizing anti-gp41 monoclonal Ab (MAb), 2F5, has been described. Here we report on two MAbs that recognize a(More)
Tumor cells gene-modified to produce GM-CSF potently stimulate antitumor immune responses, in part, by causing the growth and differentiation of dendritic cells (DC). However, GM-CSF-modified tumor cells must be gamma-irradiated or they will grow progressively, killing the host. We observed that 23 of 75 (31%) human tumor lines and two commonly used mouse(More)
The slow Wallerian degeneration protein (WldS), a fusion protein incorporating full-length nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (Nmnat1), delays axon degeneration caused by injury, toxins and genetic mutation. Nmnat1 overexpression is reported to protect axons in vitro, but its effect in vivo and its potency remain unclear. We generated(More)
The espins are actin-binding and -bundling proteins localized to parallel actin bundles. The 837-amino-acid "espin" of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctions (ectoplasmic specializations) and the 253-amino-acid "small espin" of brush border microvilli are splice isoforms that share a C-terminal 116-amino-acid actin-bundling module but contain different N termini.(More)
The relationship between symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and serum levels of pregnenolone (Pe), pregnenolone sulfate (PS), 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha- pregnan-20-one (5 alpha-THP), LH, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) was investigated during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles in 12 patients using daily(More)