M. W. Spitzer

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1. We assessed mechanisms of binaural interaction underlying detection of interaural phase disparity (IPD) by recording single-unit responses in the superior olivary complex (SOC) of the anesthetized gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Binaural responses were obtained from 58 IPD-sensitive single units, 44 of which were histologically localized. Monaural(More)
The owl can discriminate changes in the location of sound sources as small as 3 degrees and can aim its head to within 2 degrees of a source. A typical neuron in its midbrain space map has a spatial receptive field that spans 40 degrees--a width that is many times the behavioural threshold. Here we have quantitatively examined the relationship between(More)
1. Motion of sound sources results in temporal variation of the binaural cues for sound localization. We evaluated the influence of virtual motion on neural tuning to one of these cues, interaural phase disparity (IPD). Responses to dichotic stimuli were recorded from single units in the inferior colliculus of the anesthetized cat and gerbil (Meriones(More)
Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3062-3076, 1998. Previous studies demonstrated that tuning of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD) is often profoundly influenced by temporal variation of IPD, which(More)
Sound localization in echoic conditions depends on a precedence effect (PE), in which the first arriving sound dominates the perceived location of later reflections. Previous studies have demonstrated neurophysiological correlates of the PE in several species, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present study documents responses of(More)
Spontaneous and tone-evoked changes in light reflectance were recorded from primary auditory cortex (A1) of anesthetized cats (barbiturate induction, ketamine maintenance). Spontaneous 0.1-Hz oscillations of reflectance of 540- and 690-nm light were recorded in quiet. Stimulation with tone pips evoked localized reflectance decreases at 540 nm in 3/10 cats.(More)
The barn owl (Tyto alba) is capable of capturing prey by passive hearing alone, guided by a topographic map of auditory space in the external nucleus of its inferior colliculus. The neurons of this auditory space map have discrete spatial receptive fields that result from the computation of interaural differences in the level (ILD) and time-of-arrival (ITD)(More)
Insufficiency of the transcriptional regulator GTF2IRD1 has become a strong potential explanation for some of the major characteristic features of the neurodevelopmental disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Genotype/phenotype correlations in humans indicate that the hemizygous loss of the GTF2IRD1 gene and an adjacent paralogue, GTF2I, play crucial(More)
We examined the accuracy and precision with which the barn owl (Tyto alba) turns its head toward sound sources under conditions that evoke the precedence effect (PE) in humans. Stimuli consisted of 25-ms noise bursts emitted from two sources, separated horizontally by 40 degrees, and temporally by 3-50 ms. At delays from 3 to 10 ms, head turns were always(More)
In humans, directional hearing in reverberant conditions is characterized by a "precedence effect," whereby directional information conveyed by leading sounds dominates perceived location, and listeners are relatively insensitive to directional information conveyed by lagging sounds. Behavioral studies provide evidence of precedence phenomena in a wide(More)