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Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of anti-oxidants that protect cells from metabolically produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presence of these enzymes in the secretomes of many parasitic helminths suggests they provide protection against ROS released by host immune effector cells. However, we recently reported that helminth-secreted Prx also(More)
Over the last decade a significant number of studies have highlighted the central role of host antimicrobial (or defence) peptides in modulating the response of innate immune cells to pathogen-associated ligands. In humans, the most widely studied antimicrobial peptide is LL-37, a 37-residue peptide containing an amphipathic helix that is released via(More)
To infect their mammalian hosts, Fasciola hepatica larvae must penetrate and traverse the intestinal wall of the duodenum, move through the peritoneum, and penetrate the liver. After migrating through and feeding on the liver, causing extensive tissue damage, the parasites move to their final niche in the bile ducts where they mature and produce eggs. Here(More)
Trichinella spiralis is an intracellular nematode parasite of mammalian skeletal muscle. Infection of the muscle cell leads to the formation of a host-parasite complex that results in profound alterations to the host cell and a re-alignment of muscle-specific gene expression. The role of parasite excretory-secretory (ES) proteins in mediating these effects(More)
The success of helminth parasites is partly related to their ability to modulate host immune responses towards an anti-inflammatory/regulatory phenotype. This ability resides with the molecules contained in the secretome of various helminths that have been shown to interact with host immune cells and influence their function. Consequently, there exists a(More)
Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However,(More)
The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of nematode parasites are of major interest as they function at the host-parasite interface and are likely to have roles crucial for successful parasitism. Furthermore, the ES proteins of intracellular nematodes such as Trichinella spiralis may also function to regulate gene expression in the host cell. In a recent(More)
The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L cysteine proteases to invade its host, migrate through tissues and digest haemoglobin, its main source of amino acids. Here we investigated the importance of pH in regulating the activity and functions of the major cathepsin L protease FheCL1. The slightly acidic pH of the parasite gut facilitates(More)
Infections with helminth parasites prevent/attenuate auto-inflammatory disease. Here we show that molecules secreted by a helminth parasite could prevent Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. When delivered at 4 weeks of age (coincident with the initiation of autoimmunity), the excretory/secretory products of Fasciola hepatica (FhES)(More)