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Worldwide, millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization standard of 10 microg/liter by as much as 50-300-fold, yet little is known about the molecular basis for arsenic excretion. Here we show that transport of arsenic into bile depends on the MRP2/cMOAT transporter and that glutathione is obligatory(More)
gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an ectoenzyme that catalyzes the first step in the cleavage of glutathione (GSH) and plays an essential role in the metabolism of GSH and GSH conjugates of carcinogens, toxins, and eicosanoids. To learn more about the role of GGT in metabolism in vivo, we used embryonic stem cell technology to generate GGT-deficient(More)
We have investigated the metabolism of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-deficient mice (Lieberman, M. W., Wiseman, A. L., Shi, Z-Z., Carter, B. Z., Barrios, R., Ou, C-N., Chevez-Barrios, P., Wang, Y., Habib, G. M., Goodman, J. C., Huang, S. L., Lebovitz, R. M., and Matzuk, M. M. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93,(More)
We have proposed that the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapy drug, is the result of the binding of cisplatin to glutathione and the subsequent metabolism of the cisplatin-glutathione complex via a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-dependent pathway in the proximal tubules. To test the hypothesis that GGT activity is essential for the(More)
5-Oxoprolinuria (pyroglutamic aciduria) resulting from glutathione synthetase (GSS) deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized, in its severe form, by massive urinary excretion of 5-oxoproline, metabolic acidosis, haemolytic anaemia and central nervous system damage. The metabolic defect results in low GSH levels presumably with(More)
We have developed an immunological method for isolation and identification of DNA sequences containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporated during UV-induced excision-repair synthesis. DNA fragments containing BrdUrd incorporated during repair synthesis were incubated with goat anti-BrdUrd and rabbit anti-goat IgG, and the antibody-DNA complexes(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a major source of reducing equivalents in mammalian cells. To examine the role of GSH synthesis in development and cell growth, we generated mice deficient in GSH by a targeted disruption of the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gammaGCS-HS(tm1)), an essential enzyme in GSH synthesis. Embryos homozygous for(More)
Mice deficient in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) are growth retarded as a result of cysteine deficiency secondary to excessive glutathione excretion in urine and display coat color defects and cataracts. Although GGT is widely expressed throughout the mouse reproductive axis, little is known about its role in reproduction. Here, we present an analysis(More)
We have recently identified a mouse enzyme termed gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase (GGL) that converts leukotriene C4 (LTC4) to leukotriene D4 (LTD4). It also cleaves some other glutathione (GSH) conjugates, but not GSH itself (Carter, B. Z., Wiseman, A. L., Orkiszewski, R., Ballard, K. D., Ou, C.-N., and Lieberman, M. W. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272,(More)
To study the function of gamma-glutamyl leukotrienase (GGL), a newly identified member of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) family, we generated null mutations in GGL (GGL(tm1)) and in both GGL and GGT (GGL(tm1)-GGT(tm1)) by a serial targeting strategy using embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for GGL(tm1) show no obvious phenotypic changes. Mice(More)